Advertisement

Cultural ecosystem services provided by flowering of cherry trees under climate change: a case study of the relationship between the periods of flowering and festivals

  • Shin NagaiEmail author
  • Taku M. Saitoh
  • Shinpei Yoshitake
Original Paper

Abstract

In Japan, cherry blossoms are an important tourism resource and provide many cultural ecosystem service benefits. Under future warming conditions, we will require adaptions such as changing the timing of flower festivals to account for changes in the flowering phenology. In this study, we evaluated the coincidence between the flowering phenology of cherry blossoms and the associated festival periods in two Japanese cities under past, recent, and future climate conditions. We examined the situation in Shinhidaka, where the flower festival period changes every year, and Takayama, where the festival period is fixed to coincide with a shrine’s annual spring festival. Currently, the average dates of beginning of flowering (more than four or five flowers open in an index tree; ~BBCH60) and full bloom (equal to or more than 80% of flowers open in an index tree; after BBCH65) in Shinhidaka (day of year (DOY) 126 and 130) are later than the long national holiday of Golden Week (DOY 119 to 125). The respective dates in Takayama (DOY 106 and 111, respectively) are later than the local a festival period (DOY 104 and 105). Under a scenario of 1.0 to 2.0 °C warming, the full blooming dates in Shinhidaka will coincide with Golden Week, whereas under 1.0 to 1.5 °C warming, the full blooming dates in Takayama will coincide with the spring festival period. Thus, moderate warming may increase the value of cherry blossoms to the tourism industry. Under more than 3.5 °C warming in Shinhidaka and 2.5 °C warming in Takayama, however, cherry blossoms will have already dropped by Golden Week and the spring festival period, respectively, suggesting that greater warming may decrease the value of this tourism resource.

Keywords

Cherry Cultural ecosystem service Flower festival Global warming Japan 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Commerce, Industry and Tourism Section in Takayama City Office for providing the flowering phenology data. We thank the Shinhidaka Town Office for providing the information of flower festival. We thank the editor and two anonymous reviewers for their kind and constructive comments.

Funding information

The present study was conducted with funding from a Joint Usage/Research Grant from the River Basin Research Center (2017-F-002), Gifu University.

References

  1. Aono Y, Kazui K (2008) Phenological data series of cherry tree flowering in Kyoto, Japan, and its application to reconstruction of springtime temperatures since the 9th century. Int J Climatol 28:905–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aono Y, Moriya C (2003) A generalized model to estimate flowering for cherry tree (Prunus yedoensis) considering both processes of endodormancy completion and development. J Agric Meteorol 59:165–177 in Japanese with English summaryCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aono Y, Omoto Y (1990) Estimation of blooming date for Prunus yedoensis using DTS combined with chill-unit accumulations. J Agric Meteorol 45:243–249 in Japanese with English summaryCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asakura T, Sugiura H, Sakamoto D, Sugiura T, Gemma H (2010) A universal model for predicting the full bloom date of Japanese flowering cherry. J Agric Meteorol 66(4):269–277 in Japanese with English summaryCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Commerce and Tourism Department of Takayama City (2017) Tourism statistics (in Japanese) http://www.city.takayama.lg.jp/_res/projects/default_project/_page_/001/008/430/28_kankoutoukei.pdf. Accessed 18 March 2019
  6. Economic and Tourism Bureau of Hokkaido (2018) Present state of tourism in Hokkaido (in Japanese). http://www.pref.hokkaido.lg.jp/kz/kkd/toukei/2018genkyou_honbun.pdf Accessed 18 March 2019
  7. Hokkaido Government Hidaka Subprefectural Bureau (2018) Tourists statistics on Hokkaido Government Hidaka Subprefectural Bureau Web site (in Japanese). http://www.hidaka.pref.hokkaido.lg.jp/ss/srk/kanko/irikomi.htm. Accessed 18 March 2019
  8. Iida Y, Imanishi J, Morimoto Y (2013) Influence of meteorological elements of flowering periods of mountain cherry tree (Cerasus jamasakura) landscape in Yoshinoyama, Nara prefecture, Japan. Papers on Environ Information Sci 27:1–4 (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  9. Inoue T, Nagai S (2015) Influence of temperature change on plant tourism in Japan: a case study of the flowering of Lycoris radiata (red spider lily). Jpn J Biometeor 52(4):175–184Google Scholar
  10. Japan Meteorological Agency (2019a) Blooming and full blooming dates in cherry trees (in Japanese) http://www.data.jma.go.jp/sakura/data/sakura2012.pdf. Accessed 18 March 2019
  11. Japan Meteorological Agency (2019b) http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html. Accessed 18 March 2019
  12. Japan Meteorological Agency (2019c) Biometeorological information (in Japanese). http://www.data.jma.go.jp/sakura/data/index.html. Accessed 18 March 2019
  13. Japan National Tourism Organization (2019) Takayama spring festival. https://www.japan.travel/en/spot/151/. Accessed 18 March 2019
  14. Katsuki T, Iwamoto K, Ishii Y (2011) The observation of flowering dates in the Cherry Preservation Forest at the Tama Forest Science Garden over a 30 year period. Bulletin of FFPRI 10(1):7–48 (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  15. Maruoka T, Itoh H (2009) Impact of global warming on flowering of cherry trees (Prunus yedoensis) in Japan. J Agric Meteorol 65(3):283–296 in Japanese with English summaryCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Matsumoto F (2017) Flowering of cherry blossom and warming in winter in recent years. Jpn J Biometeor 54(1):3–11 (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  17. Miller-Rushing AJ, Katsuki T, Primack RB, Ishii Y, Lee SD, Higuchi H (2007) Impact of global warming on a group of related species and their hybrids: cherry tree (Rosaceae) flowering at Mt. Takao, Japan. Am J Bot 94:1470–1478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (2018) Tourism white book in 2018 (in Japanese). http://www.mlit.go.jp/statistics/file000008.html. Accessed 18 March 2019
  19. Murakami S, Kato C, Inaba Z, Nakamura S (2007) Predicted of end-dormancy breaking in “Kawazu-zakura” (Prunus lannesiana Wils.) cherry tree. J Soc High Tech in Agric 19(3):132–136 (in Japanese with English summary)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Murata H, Shinshi K, Yamamoto S, Watanabe S, Mito K, Suematsu N, Nakamura S, Murakami S, Ishii C, Yamamoto H (2012) Exploration, multiplication, and flowering behavior in early flowering cherry trees in Minami-izu region, and their contribution to tourism resources. Hort Res (Japan) 11(4):433–438 in JapaneseCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nagai S, Nasahara KN, Inoue T, Saitoh TM, Suzuki R (2016) Review: advances in in situ and satellite phenological observations in Japan. Int J Biometeorol 60:615–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nishigaki C, Hayashi Y (2012) Recent change in phenology of the spring season. Chikyu Kankyo 17(1):91–98 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  23. Ono S (1983) Excursing places in the outskirts of Edo. J Jpn Instit Landscape Architects 46(4):235–250 (in Japanese with English summary)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sakurai R, Jacobson SK, Kobori H, Primack R, Oka K, Komatsu N, Machida R (2011) Culture and climate change: Japanese cherry blossom festivals and stakeholders’ knowledge and attitudes about global climate change. Biol Conserv 144:654–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schwartz MD (2003) Phenology: an integrative environmental science. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht. 564 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Shinhidaka Tourism Association (2019) http://shinhidaka.hokkai.jp/kankoukyoukai/nizyukken/douro.html. Accessed 18 March 2019
  27. Shinhidaka Town (2019) http://www.shinhidaka-hokkaido.jp/. Accessed 18 March 2019
  28. Sparks TH (2014) Local-scale adaptation to climate change: the village flower festival. Climate Change 60:87–89Google Scholar
  29. Takayama City (2019a) http://www.city.takayama.lg.jp/index.html. Accessed 18 March 2019
  30. Takayama City (2019b) Tourists information. http://www.hida.jp/english/festivalsandevents/4000208.html. Accessed 18 March 2019
  31. Tsukahara A, Hayashi Y (2012) Influence of the global warming on blooming periods of cherry. Chikyu Kankyo 17(1):31–36 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  32. Wang L, Ning Z, Wang H, Ge Q (2017) Impact of climate variability on flowering phenology and its implications for the schedule of blossom festivals. Sustainability 9:1127.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su9071127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ISB 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research and Development Center for Global ChangeJapan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)YokohamaJapan
  2. 2.River Basin Research CenterGifu UniversityGifuJapan

Personalised recommendations