International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 63, Issue 3, pp 381–391 | Cite as

The short-term effects of outdoor temperature on blood pressure among children and adolescents: finding from a large sample cross-sectional study in Suzhou, China

  • Jia HuEmail author
  • Hui Shen
  • Chen-gang Teng
  • Di Han
  • Guang-ping Chu
  • Yi-kai Zhou
  • Qi Wang
  • Bo Wang
  • Jing-zhi Wu
  • Qi Xiao
  • Fang Liu
  • Hai-bing YangEmail author
Original Paper


Although several studies have demonstrated a short-term association between outdoor temperature and blood pressure (BP) among various adult groups, evidence among children and adolescents is lacking. One hundred ninety-four thousand one hundred four participants from 2016 Health Promotion Program for Children and Adolescents (HPPCA) were analyzed through generalized linear mixed-effects models to estimate the short-term effects of two outdoor temperature variables (average and minimum temperature) on participants’ BP. Decreasing outdoor temperature was associated with significant increases in systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and prevalence of hypertension during lag 0 through lag 6. Additionally, daily minimum temperature showed a more apparent association with participants’ BP. The estimated increases (95% confidence interval) in SBP and DBP at lag 0 were 0.82 (0.72, 0.92) mmHg and 2.28 (2.20, 2.35) mmHg for a 1 °C decrease in daily minimum temperature, while those values were 0.11 (0.10, 0.12) mmHg and 0.25 (0.24, 0.26) mmHg for a 1 °C decrease in daily average temperature, respectively. The effects of temperature on BP were stronger among female, as well as those with young age and low body mass index. It demonstrated that short-term decreases in outdoor temperature were significantly associated with rises in BP among children and adolescents. This founding has some implications for clinical management and research of BP. Meanwhile, public health intervention should be designed to reduce the exposure to cold temperature for protecting children and adolescents’ BP.


Adolescents Blood pressure Children Epidemiology Hypertension Outdoor temperature 



We gratefully acknowledge all participating children and their parents for their collaboration.

Funding information

This study was supported by the Youth Program of Reinvigorating the Health through Science and Education in Suzhou, China (kjxw2015035), and Program of Science and Technology for People’s Livelihood-Key Technology in Suzhou, China (ss201545).

Compliance with ethical standards

Informed consent forms in writing duly signed by their guardians were collected before their examination. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Suzhou Center for Disease Prevention and Control.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© ISB 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Suzhou Center for Disease Prevention and ControlSuzhouChina
  2. 2.Health Center for Women and Children of Gusu DistrictSuzhouChina
  3. 3.MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical CollegeHuazhong University of Science & TechnologyWuhanChina
  4. 4.Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical CollegeHuazhong University of Science & TechnologyWuhanChina

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