International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 62, Issue 7, pp 1325–1337 | Cite as

The effect of geographical and climatic properties on grass pollen and Phl p 5 allergen release

  • Şenol AlanEmail author
  • Aydan Acar Şahin
  • Tuğba Sarışahin
  • Serap Şahin
  • Ayşe Kaplan
  • Nur Münevver Pınar
Original Paper


The Poaceae family, including grasses, comprises several cosmopolitan and allergenic species. The aim of this study was to determine the correlations between Poaceae pollen and Phl p 5 allergen concentrations in two cities with different geographical and climatic properties in Turkey. Pollen were collected from Burkard traps in Ankara and Zonguldak. Phl p 5 sampling was carried out between March and October in both 2015 and 2016 using a BGI900 Cascade High Volume Air Sampler (900 L/min.). The concentrations of Phl p 5 were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The annual sum of Poaceae pollen (pollen index) during 2015–2016 was 5454 in Ankara and 4142 in Zonguldak. The total Phl p 5 concentration was 1309 pg/m3 in Zonguldak, whereas it was 8181 pg/m3 in Ankara over 2 years. About 90% of the allergen was found in the fraction with particulate matter (PM) > 10 μm in both cities. It was found that the main meteorological parameter which affected pollen and Phl p 5 was temperature in both stations. Rainfall was also found to be important for Zonguldak, due to its climatic and geographic properties. Lastly, we suggest that the primary wind direction, which is from the south of Zonguldak, could have a ‘drift effect’ for allergens because of the airborne pollen concentrations and the dates on which the allergen is released into the atmosphere. The wind direction may be an important factor in the distribution of allergen and pollen grains in stations, especially those with a hilly topography.


Aeroallergen Ankara Zonguldak Turkey Phl p 5 Monitoring 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) for the provision of the HYSPLIT transport and dispersion model and/or READY website ( used in this study. This research was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK), Grant No: KBAG-113Z762. We appreciate Ferudun Koçer for his contributions to our study.

Supplementary material

484_2018_1536_MOESM1_ESM.docx (8 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 8 kb)


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Copyright information

© ISB 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of BiologyBülent Ecevit UniversityZonguldakTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Science, Department of BiologyAnkara UniversityAnkaraTurkey

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