International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 62, Issue 6, pp 1027–1037 | Cite as

Fair weather voters: do Canadians stay at home when the weather is bad?

  • Daniel Stockemer
  • Michael Wigginton
Original Paper


What is the relationship between precipitation and the temperature on turnout? Using data on the 2004, 2006, 2008, 2011, and 2015 Canadian federal elections, we try to answer this question. Through bivariate and multi-variate statistics, we find that each millimeter of precipitation decreases turnout by more than 0.1 percentage points. When it comes to the temperature, our results indicate that higher temperatures trigger higher turnout. However, we also find that these relationships are influenced by season and only apply to spring, summer, and fall elections. In the winter 2006 elections, the association was inversed; warmer temperatures in this election triggered lower turnout, in particular when it was combined with precipitation.


Precipitation Temperature Weather Turnout Canada 

Supplementary material

484_2018_1506_MOESM1_ESM.dta (613 kb)
ESM 1 (DTA 613 kb)


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Copyright information

© ISB 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of OttawaOttawaCanada

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