Advertisement

Infrared thermography measured body surface temperature and its relationship with rectal temperature in dairy cows under different temperature-humidity indexes

  • D. Peng
  • S. Chen
  • G. Li
  • J. Chen
  • J. Wang
  • X. GuEmail author
Original Paper
  • 52 Downloads

Abstract

The aim of this study was to better understand the inflection point of RT and BSTs and measure different body surface temperatures (BSTs) under different temperature-humidity index (THI) conditions. A total of 488 Holstein dairy cows were chosen to manually measure rectal temperature (RT) and BSTs including left side of eye, ear, cheek, forehead, flank, rump, fore udder, and rear udder by infrared thermography for 14 times. Those measurements included six times under high THI (THI > 78), three times under moderate THI (72 ≤ THI ≤ 78), and five times under low THI (THI < 72). Results showed that BSTs were affected by THI conditions (P < 0.01). The THI conditions where mean and maximum forehead temperatures started to increase rapidly (71.4 and 66.8) were lower than that where RT started to increase rapidly (74.1). The correlation coefficients of mean and maximum forehead temperatures to THI were 0.808 and 0.740, and were 0.557 and 0.504 to RT, all showing the highest as compared to other region temperatures with THI and RT, respectively. Thus, we conclude that BSTs are more sensitive to thermal environment than RT, suggesting the variability of BST to reflect body core temperature. In addition, the forehead is a relatively reliable region to assess the heat stress reflecting RT compared to the eye, ear, cheek, flank, rump, fore udder, and rear udder regions.

Keywords

Body surface temperature Heat stress Infrared thermography Rectal temperature Temperature-humidity index 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We express sincere thanks to Mr. Dengsheng Sun for the helpful comments and Mr. Chuang Zhang and Mr. Guangju Wang from Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences for their assistants for this experiment. And many thanks to all members from the dairy farm for their support and kind help.

Funding

This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0500507, 2017YFD0502003), the Beijing Dairy Industry Innovation Team Project (BAIC06-2017), and The Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program (ASTIP-IAS07).

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethics statement

The experimental protocols were approved by the Experimental Animal Care and Committee of Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (approval number 2016IAS018).

References

  1. Adams AE, Olea-Popelka FJ, Roman-Muniz IN (2013) Using temperature-sensing reticular boluses to aid in the detection of production diseases in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 96:1549–1555.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5822 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alzahal O, Alzahal H, Steele MA, Van Schaik M, Kyriazakis I, Duffield TF, McBride BW (2011) The use of a radiotelemetric ruminal bolus to detect body temperature changes in lactating dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 94:3568–3574.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3944 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ammer S, Lambertz C, Gauly M (2016) Comparison of different measuring methods for body temperature in lactating cows under different climatic conditions. J Dairy Res 83:165–172.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029916000182 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arkin H, Kimmel E, Herman A, Broday D (1991) Heat transfer properties of dry and wet furs of dairy cows. T Asae 34:2550–2558.  https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.31905 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beatty DT, Barnes A, Taylor E, Maloney SK (2008) Do changes in feed intake or ambient temperature cause changes in cattle rumen temperature relative to core temperature?[J]. J Therm Biol 33(1):12–19.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2007.09.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berry RJ, Kennedy AD, Scott SL, Kyle BL, Schaefer AL (2003) Daily variation in the udder surface temperature of dairy cows measured by infrared thermography: potential for mastitis detection. Canadian J Anim Sci 83(4):687–693.  https://doi.org/10.4141/A03-012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bewley JM, Einstein ME, Grott MW, Schutz MM (2008) Comparison of reticular and rectal core body temperatures in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 91:4661–4672.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0835 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bouraoui R, Lahmar M, Majdoub A, Djemali M, Belyea R (2002) The relationship of temperature-humidity index with milk production of dairy cows in a mediterranean climate. Anim Res 51:479–491.  https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2002036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown-Brandl T, Nienaber MJA, Eigenberg RA, Hahn GL, Freetly H (2003) Thermoregulatory responses of feeder cattle. J Therm Biol 28:149–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4565(02)00052-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bryant J, López-Villalobos RN, Pryce JE, Holmes CW, Johnson DJ (2007) Quantifying the effect of thermal environment on production traits in three breeds of dairy cattle in New Zealand. New Zealand J Agric Res 50:327–338.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00288230709510301 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burfeind O, Keyserlingk MAGV, Weary DW, Veira DM, Heuwieser W (2010) Repeatability of measures of rectal temperature in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 93:624–627.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2689 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chiang M, Lin FPW, Lin LF, Chiou HY, Chien CW, Chu SF (2008) Mass screening of suspected febrile patients with remote-sensing infrared thermography: alarm temperature and optimal distance. J Formos Med Assoc 107:937–944.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0929-6646(09)60017-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Collier R, Dahl JGE, Vanbaale MJ (2006) Major advances associated with environmental effects on dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 89:1244–1253.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72193-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Czerkawski JW (1980) A novel estimate of the magnitude of heat produced in the rumen. Br J Nutr 42:239–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Do P, Borges PTBO, De MTLP, Gomes EF, Dallago BS, Fadel R (2013) Thermographic evaluation of climatic conditions on lambs from different genetic groups. Int J Biometeorol 57:59–66.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-012-0533-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Firk R, Stamer E, Junge W, Krieter J (2002) Automation of oestrus detection in dairy cows: a review. Lives Prod Sci 75:219–232.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(01)00323-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. García-Ispierto I, López-Gatius F, Bech-Sabat G, Santolaria P, Yániz JL, Nogareda C, De Rensis F, López-Béjar M (2007) Climate factors affecting conception rate of high producing dairy cows in northeastern Spain. Theriogenology 67:1379–1385.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.02.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gaughan JB, Mader TL, Holt SM, Lisle A (2008) A new heat load index for feedlot cattle1. J Anim Sci 86:226–234.  https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2007-0305 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Getty R (1975) Sisson and Grossman’s the anatomy of the domestic animals. Prog Electromagn Res 16:61–68Google Scholar
  20. Gloster J, Ebert K, Gubbins S, Bashiruddin J, Paton DJ (2011) Normal variation in thermal radiated temperature in cattle: implications for foot-and-mouth disease detection. BMC Vet Res 7:73.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-7-73 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Haqiya K, Hayasaka K, Yamazaki T, Shirai T, Osawa T, Terawaki Y, Nagamine Y, Masuda Y, Suzuki M (2017) Effects of heat stress on production, somatic cell score and conception rate in Holsteins. Anim Sci J 88:3–10.  https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12617 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hicks LC, Hicks WS, Bucklin RA, Shearer JK, Bray DR, Soto P, Carvalho V (2001) Comparison of methods of measuring deep body temperatures of dairy cows. In Livestock environment VI: Proc 6th Int. Symp. ASAE, pp. 432–438, Louisville, Kentucky, USAGoogle Scholar
  23. Hoffmann G, Schmidt M, Ammon C, Rose-Meierhöfer S, Burfeind O, Heuwieser W, Berg W (2013) Monitoring the body temperature of cows and calves using video recordings from an infrared thermography camera. Vet Res Commun 37:91–99.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11259-012-9549-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ingraham RH, Stanley RW, Wagner WC (1976) Relationship of temperature and humidity to conception rate of Holstein cows in Hawaii. J Dairy Sci 59:2086–2090.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(76)84491-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Joksimović-Todorović M, Davidović V, Hristov S, Stanković B (2011) Effect of heat stress on milk production in dairy cows. Biotech Anim Husbandry 27:1017–1023.  https://doi.org/10.2298/BAH1103017J CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kessel L, Johnson L, Arvidsson H, Larsen M (2010) The relationship between body and ambient temperature and corneal temperature. Invest Ophth Vis Sci 51:6593–6597.  https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.10-5659 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lacetera N, Bernabucci U, Scalia D, Ronchi B, Kuzminsky G, Nardone A (2005) Lymphocyte functions in dairy cows in hot environment. Int J Biometeorol 50:105–110.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-005-0273-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liang D, Wood CL, McQuerry KJ, Ray DL, Clark JD, Bewley JM (2013) Influence of breed, milk production, season, and ambient temperature on dairy cow reticulorumen temperature. J Dairy Sci 96:5072–5081.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-6537 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Loughmiller JA, Spire MF, Dritz SS, Fenwick BW, Hosni MH, Hogge SB (2001) Relationship between mean body surface temperature measured by use of infrared thermography and ambient temperature in clinically normal pigs and pigs inoculated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Am J Vet Res 62(5):676–681.  https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.2001.62.676 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ludwig N, Gargano M, Luzi F, Carenzi C, Verga M (2010) Applicability of infrared thermography as a non invasive measurements of stress in rabbit. World Rabbit Sci 15:199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Martello LS, Silva SDL, da Costa GR, da Silva CRRP, Leme PR (2016) Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions. Int J Biometeorol 60:173–181.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-015-1015-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mccafferty DJ (2007) The value of infrared thermography for research on mammals: previous applications and future directions. Mammal Rev 37:207–223.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2907.2007.00111.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Montanholi YR, Odongo NE, Swanson KC, Schenkel FS, Mcbride BW, Miller SP (2008) Application of infrared thermography as an indicator of heat and methane production and its use in the study of skin temperature in response to physiological events in dairy cattle (Bos taurus). J Therm Biol 33:468–475.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2008.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ng E, Kawb G, Chang WM (2004) Analysis of IR thermal imager for mass blind fever screening. Microvasc Res 68:104–109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mvr.2004.05.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Oltenacu PA, Broom DM, Kirkwood JK, Weddell S, Hubrecht RC, Wickens SM (2010) The impact of genetic selection for increased milk yield on the welfare of dairy cows. Anim Welf 19:39–49Google Scholar
  36. Pavlidis I, Levine JA, Baukol P (2000) Thermal imaging for anxiety detection. IEEE 2:315–318Google Scholar
  37. Peng D, Chen J, Zhao Y, Han L, Li G, Yang C, Gu X (2016) Effect of smudgy degree on temperature distribution of the udder surface in dairy cow. J Anim Vet Sci 47:844–851Google Scholar
  38. Rowsell HC (1972) A guide to environmental research on animals. Tr Inst Im Pastera 56:32–44Google Scholar
  39. Salles MSV, da Silva SC, Salles FA, Roma LC, El Faro L, Mac Lean PAB, de Oliveira CEL, Martello LS (2016) Mapping the body surface temperature of cattle by infrared thermography. J Therm Biol 62:63–69.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2016.10.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sarkar S, Donn SM, Bhagat I, Dechert RE, Barks JD (2013) Esophageal and rectal temperatures as estimates of Core temperature during therapeutic whole-body hypothermia. J Pediatrics 162:208–210.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.08.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schaefer AL, Cook NJ, Church JS, Basarab J, Perry B, Miller C (2007) The use of infrared thermography as an early indicator of bovine respiratory disease complex in calves. Res Vet Sci 83:376–384.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2007.01.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schutz MM, Bewley JM (2009) Implications in changes in core body temperature. Pages 39–54 in Tri-State Dairy Nutr. Conf. Proc., Columbus, OHGoogle Scholar
  43. Stewart M, Wwbster J, Schaefer A, Cook N, Scott S (2005) Infrared thermography as a non-invasive tool to study animal welfare. Anim Welf 14:319–325Google Scholar
  44. Stewart M, Stafford KJ, Dowling SK, Schaefer AL, Webster JR (2008) Eye temperature and heart rate variability of calves disbudded with or without local anaesthetic. Physiol Behav 93:789–797.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.11.044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. St-Pierre NR, Cobanov B, Schnitkey G (2003) Economic losses from heat stress by US livestock industries. J Dairy Sci 86:E52–E77.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)74040-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Suthar V, Burfeind O, Bonk S, Voigtsberger R, Keane C, Heuwieser W (2012) Factors associated with body temperature of healthy Holstein dairy cows during the first 10 days in milk. J Dairy Res 79:135–142.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029911000896 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang JP, Bu DP, Wang JQ, Luo XK, Guo TJ, Wei HY, Zhou LY, Rastani RR, Baumgard LH, Li FD (2010) Effect of saturated fatty acid supplementation on production and metabolism indices in heat-stressed mid-lactation dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 93:4121–4127  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2635 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Weschenfelder AV, Saucier L, Maldague X, Rocha LM, Schaefer AL, Faucitano L (2013) Use of infrared ocular thermography to assess physiological conditions of pigs prior to slaughter and predict pork quality variation. Meat Sci 95:616–620.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.06.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. West JW (1999) Nutritional strategies for managing the heat-stressed dairy cow. J Anim Sci 77:21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. West JW, Mullinix BG, Bernard JK (2003) Effects of hot, humid weather on milk temperature, dry matter intake, and milk yield of lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 86:232–242.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73602-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Younes RB, Ayadi M, Najar T, Caccamo M, Schadt I, M’Rad MB (2011) Hormonal (thyroxin, cortisol) and immunological (leucocytes) responses to cistern size and heat stress in Tunisia. Life Sci 11:332–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ISB 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Peng
    • 1
  • S. Chen
    • 1
  • G. Li
    • 1
  • J. Chen
    • 1
  • J. Wang
    • 1
  • X. Gu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal ScienceChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations