Evaluation of microclimates and assessment of thermal comfort of Panthera leo in the Masai Mara National Reserve, Kenya

  • Satyajit GhoshEmail author
  • Dhruv Gangadharan Arvind
  • Steven Dobbie
Original Paper


Quantifying comfort levels of lions within the Masai Mara National Reserve in Kenya is the main focus of this study. Its discourse delineates step by step the process of quantifying comfort levels of lions within the Mara. Resource-efficient measures for humans in the built environment have long been developed through the creation of passive zones and modulated ventilation. In an analogous manner, new procedures are being adapted for creating optimized microclimates in natural game reserves. This involves CFD (computational fluid dynamics)-inspired landscaping. It is seen that the predicted mean vote (PMV) values—measures of thermal comfort—exceed the expected comfortable ranges suitable for normal functioning of lions in the reserve. This calls for a detailed exploration on sustainable development of this sanctuary. The paper illustrates how modern tools in computational fluid dynamics can be used along with standard ecological models to ascertain the optimal extent of airflow, levels of hydration, and land use pattern changes affecting the prevailing microclimate.


Game reserve resource efficiency Airflow Thermal comfort Habitat preference Microclimate 



This research was conducted after a personal visit to the Masai Mara National Reserve, organized by Mr. Binod Sharma at the United Nations in Nairobi. The authors humbly thank VIT University, Vellore, India, and University of Leeds, UK, for making this research possible and for providing an intellectual space for the betterment of wildlife conservation. The Masai people are sincerely thanked for the upkeep and maintenance of their natural heritage and are held in reverence. Thanks are also due to Mr. Siddharth Gumber.


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© ISB 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringVIT UniversityVelloreIndia
  2. 2.School of Earth and EnvironmentUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK
  3. 3.School of Biosciences and TechnologyVIT UniversityVelloreIndia
  4. 4.School of Geography and the EnvironmentUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

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