Evaluation of microclimates and assessment of thermal comfort of Panthera leo in the Masai Mara National Reserve, Kenya
- 48 Downloads
Quantifying comfort levels of lions within the Masai Mara National Reserve in Kenya is the main focus of this study. Its discourse delineates step by step the process of quantifying comfort levels of lions within the Mara. Resource-efficient measures for humans in the built environment have long been developed through the creation of passive zones and modulated ventilation. In an analogous manner, new procedures are being adapted for creating optimized microclimates in natural game reserves. This involves CFD (computational fluid dynamics)-inspired landscaping. It is seen that the predicted mean vote (PMV) values—measures of thermal comfort—exceed the expected comfortable ranges suitable for normal functioning of lions in the reserve. This calls for a detailed exploration on sustainable development of this sanctuary. The paper illustrates how modern tools in computational fluid dynamics can be used along with standard ecological models to ascertain the optimal extent of airflow, levels of hydration, and land use pattern changes affecting the prevailing microclimate.
KeywordsGame reserve resource efficiency Airflow Thermal comfort Habitat preference Microclimate
This research was conducted after a personal visit to the Masai Mara National Reserve, organized by Mr. Binod Sharma at the United Nations in Nairobi. The authors humbly thank VIT University, Vellore, India, and University of Leeds, UK, for making this research possible and for providing an intellectual space for the betterment of wildlife conservation. The Masai people are sincerely thanked for the upkeep and maintenance of their natural heritage and are held in reverence. Thanks are also due to Mr. Siddharth Gumber.
- ASHRAE 55 (2004) Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. (Supersedes ANSI/ASHRAEStandard 55 (1992))Google Scholar
- Axarli K, Chatzidimitriou A (2012) Redesigning urban open spaces based on bioclimatic criteria: two squares in Thessaloniki, Greece. Proceedings of PLEA2012, Lima, PeruGoogle Scholar
- BS EN ISO 7730:1995 (1995) Moderate thermal environments, determination of the PMV and PPD indices and specification of the conditions for thermal comfortGoogle Scholar
- Chen J, Saunders SC, Crow TR, Naiman RJ, Brosofske KD, Mroz GD, Brookshire BL, Franklin JF (1999) Microclimate in forest ecosystem and landscape ecology variations in local climate can be used to monitor and compare the effects of different management regimes. BioScience 49:288–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fanger PO (1972) Thermal comfort: analysis and applications in environmental engineering. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Huttner S, Bruse M (2009) Numerical modeling of the urban climate—a preview on ENVI-met 4.0. 7th International Conference on Urban Climate ICUC-7, Yokohama, JapanGoogle Scholar
- Kaufmann RV (1976) The development of the range land areas. In: Heyer J, Maitha J, Senga W (eds) Agricultural development in Kenya: an economic assessment. Oxford University Press, Nairobi, pp 255–287Google Scholar
- Michalakes J, Chen S, Dudhia J, Hart L, Klemp J, Middlecoff J, Skamarock W (2001) Development of a next generation regional weather research and forecast model, Developments in Teracomputing: Proceedings of the Ninth ECMWF Workshop on the use of high performance computing in meteorology, World ScientificGoogle Scholar
- Perry DA (1994) Forest ecosystems. JHU Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
- Stull RB (1988) An introduction to boundary layer meteorology. Atmospheric Sciences Library, Dordrecht; Kluwer Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar