Blue light advances bud burst in branches of three deciduous tree species under short-day conditions
- 280 Downloads
An LED spectrum containing blue light advanced bud burst in branches of Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur compared with a spectrum without blue light in a controlled environment.
During spring, utilising multiple cues allow tree species from temperate and boreal regions to coordinate their bud burst and leaf out, at the right moment to capitalise on favourable conditions for photosynthesis. Whilst the effect of blue light (400–500 nm) has been shown to increase percentage bud burst of axillary shoots of Rosa sp., the effects of blue light on spring-time bud burst of deciduous tree species have not previously been reported. We tested the hypotheses that blue light would advance spring bud burst in tree species, and that late-successional species would respond more than early-successional species, whose bud burst is primarily determined by temperature. The bud development of Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, and Quercus robur branches, cut from dormant trees, was monitored under two light treatments of equal photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm) and temperature, either with or without blue light, under controlled environmental conditions. In the presence of blue light, the mean time required to reach 50% bud burst was reduced by 3.3 days in Betula pendula, 6 days in Alnus glutinosa, and 6.3 days in Quercus robur. This result highlights the potential of the blue region of the solar spectrum to be used as an extra cue that could help plants to regulate their spring phenology, alongside photoperiod and temperature. Understanding how plants combine photoreceptor-mediated cues with other environmental cues such as temperature to control phenology is essential if we are to accurately predict how tree species might respond to climate change.
KeywordsPhenology Bud break Leaf flush Spectral composition Spectral quality Photoreceptors
Our acknowledgments to Lammi Biological station staff, in particular, John Loehr, to Mikko Peltoniemi and the EU Life + MONIMET phenology camera network, to Viikki Greenhouses Facility at the University of Helsinki and Viikki Arboretum, Marta Pieristè, Marieke Trasser and Ulla Riihimäki for help sampling, Titta Kotilainen for processing the spectral irradiance measurements. Thanks to Otmar Urban, Line Nybakken, and the two anonymous reviewers for giving constructive comments which improved the manuscript.
CCB conceived, designed and carried out the experiment and statistical analyses. TMR supervised the design, analyses and interpretation of results. Both authors wrote the manuscript.
We thank the Finnish Academy of Science for funding the project through the funding decisions # 266523 and #304519 to TMR, and Valoya Ltd. for providing the LED Lamps.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Barnola P, Crochet A, Payan E, Gendraud M, Lavarenne S (1986) Modifications of energy-metabolism and permeability in the apical bud and in stem during the temporary rest of the growth of young oak trees. Physiol veg 24:307–314Google Scholar
- Barstow M, Khela S (2017) Quercus robur. The IUCN red list of threatened species 2017:e.T63532A3126467Google Scholar
- Catesson AM (1964) Modifications cytochimiques saisonnieres des points vegetatifs dans les bourgeons de lacer pseudoplatanus. C R Acad Sci 258:5709Google Scholar
- Hughes JE, Morgan DC, Lambton PA, Black CR, Smith H (1984) Photoperiodic time signals during twilight. Plant Cell Environ 7:269–277Google Scholar
- Kelner JJ, Lachaud S, Bonnemain JL (1993) Seasonal variations in ABA exchange between the apical bud and the underlying stem of beech. Comparison with nutrients. Plant Physiol Biochem 31:523–530Google Scholar
- Kramer K, Ducousso A, Gömöry D, Hansen JK, Ionita L, Liesebach M, Lorenţ A, Schüler S, Sulkowska M, de Vries S, von Wühlisch G (2017) Chilling and forcing requirements for foliage bud burst of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) differ between provenances and are phenotypically plastic. Agric For Meteorol 234:172–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Murray MB, Cannell MGR, Smith RI (1989) Date of budburst of fifteen tree species in Britain following climatic warming. J Appl Ecol 693–700Google Scholar
- Olsen JE, Lee Y, Junttila O (2014) Effect of alternating day and night temperature on short day-induced bud set and subsequent bud burst in long days in Norway spruce. Front Plant Sci 5Google Scholar
- Shaw K, Roy S, Wilson B (2014) Alnus glutinosa. The IUCN red list of threatened species 2014:e.T63517A3125479Google Scholar
- Somers-Yeates R, Bennie J, Economou T, Hodgson D, Spalding A, McGregor PK (2016) Light pollution is associated with earlier tree budburst across the United Kingdom. Proc R Soc B 283:20160813Google Scholar
- Stritch L, Shaw K, Roy S, Wilson B (2014) Betula pendula. The IUCN red list of threatened species 2014:e.T62535A3115662Google Scholar
- Teissier du Crois E, Le Tacon F, Nepveu G, Pardé J, Timbal J (1981) Le hêtre. Département des Recherches Forestières, INRA, Paris, p 613Google Scholar
- Urban O, Janouš D, Acosta M, Czerný R, Markova I, Navratil M, Pavelka M, Pokorný R, Šprtová M, Zhang R, Špunda V (2007) Ecophysiological controls over the net ecosystem exchange of mountain spruce stand. Comparison of the response in direct vs. diffuse solar radiation. Global Change Biol 13:157–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar