Advertisement

Trees

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 1147–1156 | Cite as

Use of DNA sequence data to identify wood-decay fungi likely associated with stem failure caused by windthrow in urban trees during a typhoon

  • Yoshie Fukui
  • Toshizumi Miyamoto
  • Yutaka Tamai
  • Akio Koizumi
  • Takashi Yajima
Short Communication

Abstract

Key message

Molecular biology methods identified wood-decay fungi in wind-thrown trees. The stem failure height was in accordance with the colonization strategies of each fungal species. The dominant fungus was Polyporus squamosus.

Abstract

Decay reduces wood strength and can lead to the collapse of urban and roadside trees, which can occasionally cause extensive property damage or injury to people. For managing trees in urban green areas, it is essential to assess the risk of stem failure by detecting fungal species that act as decay agents. Wood decay was found in the stems of many trees broken by a windthrow during a typhoon in an urban green area dominated by Japanese elm. We measured the height of failure in the sampled trees to compare the fungal infection and point on the stems and the strategies of colonization of each fungal species. No fruit bodies of fungi were found on the stems of broken tress in the damaged area for species identification based on morphological characteristics. Therefore, we used rDNA-ITS sequence data to identify species of wood-decay fungi at the point of stem failure caused by windthrow. The stem failure height was in accordance with the localization of each fungal species, i.e., above or below the ground level. In the Japanese elm, the dominant fungus was Polyporus squamosus, which was detected in large trees with diameter breast height ranging from 89 to 230 cm. P. squamosus infection is considered particularly hazardous as it increases the risk of large tree falling. The mean stem failure height of the trees infected with P. squamosus infection was 6.4 m. We speculated that this fungus had penetrated the tree via stem wounds, thereby causing stem failure.

Keywords

Polyporus squamosus rDNA-ITS sequence Stem failure Urban green area Windthrow Wood-decay fungi 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Professor H. Fujita and members of the Laboratory of Forest Resource Biology and the Laboratory of Timber Engineering, Hokkaido University, for their support in the field investigations.

Author Contribution

YF contributed to DNA analysis, data interpretation, and the writing of the initial draft of the manuscript. TM designed the study and contributed to data collection and the writing of the final version of the manuscript. YT, AK, and TY contributed to data collection and interpretation. All authors discussed and wrote the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Breitenbach J, Kränzlin F (1995) Fungi of Switzerland, Volume 4. Agarics 2nd part. Mykologia Luzerne, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  2. Burdsall HH, Volk TJ, Ammirati JF (1996) Bridgeoporus, a new genus to accommodate Oxporus nobilissimus (Basidiomycotina, Polyporaceae). Mycotaxon LX:387–395Google Scholar
  3. Cekstere G, Osvalde A (2013) A study of chemical characteristics of soil in relation to street trees status in Riga (Latvia). Urban For Urban Green 12:69–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ciftci C, Kane B, Brena SF, Arwade SR (2014) Loss in moment capacity of tree stems induced by decay. Trees 28:517–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Erkkilä R, Niemelä T (1986) Polypores in the parks and forests of the City of Helsinki. Karstenia 26:1–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fukui Y, Miyamoto T, Koizumi A, Tamai Y, Yajima T (2007) Decay of trees damaged by Typhoon No.18 in 2004 at Hokkaido University (in Japanese with English summary). Res Bull Hokkaido Univ For 64:123–129Google Scholar
  7. Gáper J (1996) Polypores associated with native woody host plants in urban areas of Slovakia. Czech Mycol 49:129–145Google Scholar
  8. Gáper J (1997) A survey of the polypores occurring on introduced European and North American woody plants from the urban environment in Slovakia. Biol Bratisl 52:11–16Google Scholar
  9. Gáper J, Sliacka I, Hvolková L (2014) Diversity and ecology of polypores in urban vegetation of northern, central and southern Slovakia. Folia Oecol 41:17–23Google Scholar
  10. Gardes M, Bruns TD (1993) ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes-application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Mol Ecol 2:113–118CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gibbs JN, Greig BJW (1990) Survey of parkland trees after the great storm of October 16, 1987. Arboric J 14:321–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Giordano L, Sillo F, Guglielmo F, Gonthier P (2015) Comparing visual inspection of trees and molecular analysis of internal wood tissues for the diagnosis of wood decay fungi. Forestry 88:465–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Glaeser JA, Lindner DL (2011) Use of fungal biosystematics and molecular genetics in detection and identification of wood-decay fungi for improved forest management. For Pathol 41:341–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gonthier P, Guglielmo F, Sillo F, Giordano L, Garbelotto M (2015) A molecular diagnostic assay for the detection and identification of wood decay fungi of conifers. For Pathol 45:89–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gregory SC, Rishbeth J, Shaw CG III (1991) Pathogenicity and virulence. In: Shaw CG III, Kile GA (eds) Armillaria root disease. Agriculture Handbook No. 691. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC, pp 76–87Google Scholar
  16. Guglielmo F, Bergemann SE, Gonthier P, Nicolotti G, Garbelotto M (2007) A multiplex PCR-based method for the detection and early identification of wood rotting fungi in standing trees. J Appl Microbiol 103:1490–1507CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Guglielmo F, Gonthier P, Garbelotto M, Nicolotti G (2010) Optimization of sampling procedures for DNA-based diagnosis of wood decay fungi in standing trees. Lett Appl Microbiol 51:90–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Guillaumin JJ, Mohammed C, Anselmi N, Courtecuisse R, Gregory SC, Holdenrieder O, Intini M, Lung B, Marxmüller H, Morrison D, Rishbeth J, Termorshuizen AJ, Tirró A, Van Dam B (1993) Geographical distribution and ecology of the Armillaria species in western Europe. Eur J For Pathol 23:321–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hasegawa E, Ota Y, Hattori T, Kikuchi T (2010) Sequence-based identification of Japanese Armillaria species using the elongation factor-1 alpha gene. Mycologia 102:898–910CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hatakka A (1994) Lignin-modifying enzymes from selected white-rot fungi: production and role in lignin degradation. FEMS Microbiol Rev 13:125–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hemmi T, Akai S (1939) Pathological studies on Polyporus rhodophaeus Lév. (in Japanese with English summary) Jpn J Phytopathol 9:199–210 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Igarashi T (1997) Mushrooms of Akan national park (in Japanese). In: Scientific report of Maeda Ipooen foundation. No.14. Maeda Ippoen Foundation, HokkaidoGoogle Scholar
  23. Igarashi T (2006) Fungi of Hokkaido (in Japanese). Hokkaido Shinbunsha, SapporoGoogle Scholar
  24. Ikehata K, Buchanan ID, Smith DW (2004) Extracellular peroxidase production by Coprinus species from urea-treated soil. Can J Microbiol 3:57–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Imazeki R, Hongo T (1989) Colored illustrations of mushrooms of Japan vol. II (in Japanese). Hoikusha, OsakaGoogle Scholar
  26. Ito K (1974) Pathology of forest trees III (in Japanese). Norin Shuppan, Tokyo, pp 143–145Google Scholar
  27. Kamei S (1929) Polypores and its host trees observed in and around Sapporo city (in Japanese). J Sapporo Soc Agric For 20:280–282Google Scholar
  28. Koizumi A (1987) Studies on the estimation of the mechanical properties of standing trees by non-destructive bending test (in Japanese with English summary). Res Bull Coll Exp For Hokkaido Univ 44:1329–1415Google Scholar
  29. Koizumi A, Hirai T (2006) Evaluation of the section modulus for tree-stem cross sections of irregular shape. J Wood Sci 52:213–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Koizumi A, Hirai T, Ryu K, Nakahara R, Araya K, Shimizu H, (2007) Wind damage resistance of Robinia pseudoacasia planted on the roadsides (in Japanese with English summary). Res Bull Hokkaido Univ For 64:105–102Google Scholar
  31. Ławrynowicz M (1982) Macrofungal flora of Łódź. In: Bornkamm R, Lee J, Seaward M (eds) Urban ecology. 2nd Eur. Ecol. Symp, Berlin, 8–12 September 1980. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 41–47Google Scholar
  32. Lonsdale D (1999) Principles of tree hazard assessment and management. Research for Amenity Trees No. 7. Arboricultural Association, UKGoogle Scholar
  33. Mattheck C (1998) How dose a tree break? In: In: Design in nature—learning from trees. Springer, Germany, pp 141–162Google Scholar
  34. Nicolotti G, Gonthier P, Guglielmo F, Garbelotto MM (2009) A biomolecular method for the detection of wood decay fungi: a focus on tree stability assessment. Arboric Urban For 35:14–19Google Scholar
  35. Nielsen CN, Bühler O, Kristoffersen P (2007) Soil water dynamics and growth of street and park trees. Arboric Urban For 33:231–245Google Scholar
  36. Ohno S, Fujita H, Nagano J, Ohmori M, Azuma T, Hayashi T (2006) The study on damage caused by Typhoon No. 18 in 2004 at the Botanic Garden Hokkaido University (in Japanese with English summary). J Jpn Assoc Bot Gard 40:57–62Google Scholar
  37. Peters M, Ossenbruggen P, Shigo A (1985) Cracking and failure behavior models of defective balsam fir trees. Holzforschung 39:125–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ryu K (2005) Lost memory of town and green, Sapporo (in Japanese). Hokkaido Nat Mag Mori 12:13–15Google Scholar
  39. Schmidt O (2006) Wood and tree fungi. Biology, damage, protection, and use. Springer, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  40. Schmidt O, Huckfeldt T (2011) Characteristics and identification of indoor wood-decaying basidiomycertes. In: Adan OCG, Samson RA (eds) Fundamentals of mold growth in door environments and strategies for healthy living. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, pp 117–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schmidt O, Gaiser O, Dujesiefken D (2012) Molecular identification of decay fungi in the wood of urban trees. Eur J For Res 131:885–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schwarze FWMR., Engels J, Mattheck C (2000) Fungal strategies of wood decay in trees. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Seiwa K (2009) Ulmus davidiana Planch. var japonica (Rehd.) Nakai (in Japanese). In: Watanabe T et al (eds) Silvoics of Japan I. Japan Forestry Investigation Committee, JapanGoogle Scholar
  44. Smiley ET, Fraedrich BR (1992) Determing strength loss from decay. J Arboric 18:201–204Google Scholar
  45. Sukopp H, Werner P (1983) Urban environments and vegetation. In: Holzner W, Werger M, Ikushima I (eds) Man’s impact on vegetation. W. Junk Publishers, The Hauge, pp 247–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Szczepkowski A (2004) Pereniporia fraxinea (Fungi, Polyporales), a new species for Poland. Polish Bot J 49:73–77Google Scholar
  47. Tatewaki M, Igarashi T (1973) Botanical survey on Nopporo national forest, with special reference to the forest vegetation, prov. Ishikari, Hokkaido, Japan (in Japanese with English summary). Sapporo Regional Forestry Office, SapporoGoogle Scholar
  48. Terho M, Hallaksela A-M (2005) Potential hazard characteristics of Tilia, Betula and Acer trees removed in the Helsinki City Area during 2001–2003. Urban For Urban Green 3:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Terho M, Hallaksela A-M (2008) Decay characteristics of hazardous Tilia, Betula, and Acer trees felled by municipal urban tree managers in the Helsinki city area. Forestry 81:151–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Terho M, Hantula J, Hallaksela A-M (2007) Occurrence and decay patterns of common wood-decay fungi in hazardous trees felled in the Helsinki City. For Pathol 37:420–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tsushima T, Kanno M, Terazawa K, Kohata Y, Abe T, Sato H, Mitsuoka O, Hara H, Asai T (2004) Flash report on damage from typhoon 0418 (in Japanese). Koushunai Kihou 137:1–12Google Scholar
  52. Wang X, Allison RB (2008) Decay detection in red oak trees using a combination of visual inspection, acoustic testing, and resistance microdrilling. Arboric Urban For 34:1–4Google Scholar
  53. Watson GW, Kelsey P (2006) The impact of soil compaction on soil aeration and fine root density of Quercus palustris. Urban For Urban Green 4:69–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 315–322Google Scholar
  55. Yajima T (1982) Study on the growth of main tree species in the mixed forest of needle-leaved and broad-leaved trees (in Japanese with English summary). Res Bull Coll Exp For Hokkaido Univ 39:1–54Google Scholar
  56. Yamaguchi T, Ishibashi S, Takao G, Takahashi M, Abe S, Sakai Y, Sasaki S (2005) Preriminary study on the biodiversity of wood-decaying polypores and their changes one year after the selective cutting at a natural forest in Ikutora, central Hokkaido (in Japanese). Trans Meet Hokkaido Branch Jpn For Soc 53:107–110 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshie Fukui
    • 1
  • Toshizumi Miyamoto
    • 2
  • Yutaka Tamai
    • 2
  • Akio Koizumi
    • 2
  • Takashi Yajima
    • 2
  1. 1.Graduate School of AgricultureHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.Research Faculty of AgricultureHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations