Endoscopic surgery, as a result of over 90 years of investigation, has now become the most innovative part of general surgery; every procedure in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity, intraperitoneal or extraperitoneal, has been reviewed for feasibility. The basic principles in the management of surgical patients, however, have not changed: adequate exposure and good lighting remain important and may become more important with endoscopic techniques. Historical review shows the dependence of advances in laparoscopy upon technical development in the field of intraabdominal exposure as the result of two objectives: namely abdominal wall displacement and bowel retraction.
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Received: 12 June 1996/Accepted: 8 January 1997
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Paolucci, V., Schaeff, B., Gutt, C. et al. Exposure of the operative field in laparoscopic surgery. Surg Endosc 11, 856–863 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1007/s004649900472
- Key words: Pneumoperitoneum — Mechanical abdominal wall lifting — Balloon dissection — Isopneumic laparoscopy