Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 33, Issue 10, pp 3153–3164 | Cite as

Palliative surgical bypass is superior to palliative endoscopic stenting in patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction: systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Ioannis MintzirasEmail author
  • Michael Miligkos
  • Sabine Wächter
  • Jerena Manoharan
  • Detlef Klaus Bartsch
Review Article



Gastrojejunostomy (GJ) and self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) are the two most common palliative treatment options for patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). Randomised trials and retrospective studies have shown discrepant results, so that there is still a controversy regarding the optimal treatment of GOO.


Medline, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were systematically searched for studies comparing GJ to SEMS in patients with malignant GOO. Primary outcomes were survival and postoperative mortality. Secondary outcomes were frequency of re-interventions, major complications, time to oral intake and length of hospital stay.


Twenty-seven studies, with a total of 2.354 patients, 1.306 (55.5%) patients in the SEMS and 1.048 (44.5%) patients in the GJ group, were considered suitable for inclusion. GJ was associated with significantly longer survival than SEMS (mean difference 43 days, CI 12.00, 73.70, p = 0.006). Postoperative mortality (OR 0.55, CI 0.27, 1.16, p = 0.12) and major complications (OR 0.73, CI 0.5, 1.06, p = 0.10) were similar in both groups. The frequency of re-interventions, however, was almost three times higher in the SEMS group (OR 2.95, CI: 1.70, 5.14, p < 0.001), whereas the mean time to oral intake and length of hospital stay were shorter in the SEMS group (mean differences − 5 days, CI − 6.75, − 3.05 days, p < 0.001 and − 10 days, CI − 11.6, − 7.9 days, p < 0.001, respectively).


Patients with malignant GOO and acceptable performance status should be primarily considered for a palliative GJ rather than SEMS.


Malignant GOO Surgical bypass Endoscopic stenting Meta-analysis 


Compliance with ethical standards


Ioannis Mintziras, Michael Miligkos, Sabine Wächter, Jerena Manoharan and Detlef Klaus Bartsch have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ioannis Mintziras
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael Miligkos
    • 2
  • Sabine Wächter
    • 1
  • Jerena Manoharan
    • 1
  • Detlef Klaus Bartsch
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Visceral-, Thoracic- and Vascular SurgeryPhilipps-University MarburgMarburgGermany
  2. 2.Laboratory of BiomathematicsUniversity of Thessaly School of MedicineLarissaGreece

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