Chronic pain after two laparoendoscopic inguinal hernia repairs compared with laparoendoscopic repair followed by the Lichtenstein repair: an international questionnaire study
- 97 Downloads
The best repair of a recurrent inguinal hernia after primary laparoendoscopic repair is debatable. The aim was to assess chronic pain after two laparoendoscopic repairs in the same groin compared with Lichtenstein reoperation preceded by a laparoendoscopic repair.
This cohort study included adult patients who had received two laparoendoscopic repairs (Lap–Lap) or a laparoendoscopic repair followed by the Lichtenstein repair (Lap–Lich). Eligible patients were identified in the Danish and the Swedish hernia databases. Lap–Lap was matched 1:3 with Lap–Lich, and patients were sent validated questionnaires. The primary outcome was the proportion with chronic pain-related functional impairment, compared between the two groups. Secondary outcomes included chronic pain during various activities.
In total, 74% (546 patients) responded to the questionnaires with a median follow-up since the second repair of 4.9 years (0.9–21.9 years). Regarding the primary outcome, 21% in Lap–Lap and Lap–Lich had chronic pain-related functional impairment of daily activities (p = 0.94). More patients in Lap–Lap compared with Lap–Lich reported pain ≥ 20 mm measured by the visual analog scale, 11% versus 5%, p = 0.04. However, there was no difference in the median VAS score or in the vast majority of the remaining secondary outcomes.
There was no overall difference in chronic pain between patients who had received Lap–Lap compared with Lap–Lich. Choice of operative strategy for the second repair should, therefore, not be based on risk of chronic pain.
KeywordsChronic pain Questionnaires Inguinal hernia recurrence Reoperation Laparoendoscopic repair Lichtenstein repair
The A.P. Møller Foundation for the Advancement of Medical Science contributed with financial support to cover the operational expenses of questionnaires, postal stamps, and envelopes. The contribution was solely financial without influence on the study process.
Compliance with ethical standards
Jacob Rosenberg reports personal fees from Bard and Merck, outside the submitted work. Stina Öberg, Kristoffer Andresen, Hanna Nilsson, Eva Angenete reports no potential conflicts of interest and financial ties to disclose.
- 1.Miserez M, Peeters E, Aufenacker T, Bouillot JL, Campanelli G, Conze J, Fortelny R, Heikkinen T, Jorgensen LN, Kukleta J, Morales-Conde S, Nordin P, Schumpelick V, Smedberg S, Smietanski M, Weber G, Simons MP (2014) Update with level 1 studies of the European Hernia Society guidelines on the treatment of inguinal hernia in adult patients. Hernia 18:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 2.Simons MP, Aufenacker T, Bay-Nielsen M, Bouillot JL, Campanelli G, Conze J, de Lange D, Fortelny R, Heikkinen T, Kingsnorth A, Kukleta J, Morales-Conde S, Nordin P, Schumpelick V, Smedberg S, Smietanski M, Weber G, Miserez M (2009) European Hernia Society guidelines on the treatment of inguinal hernia in adult patients. Hernia 13:343–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Poelman MM, van den Heuvel B, Deelder JD, Abis GS, Beudeker N, Bittner RR, Campanelli G, van Dam D, Dwars BJ, Eker HH, Fingerhut A, Khatkov I, Koeckerling F, Kukleta JF, Miserez M, Montgomery A, Munoz Brands RM, Morales Conde S, Muysoms FE, Soltes M, Tromp W, Yavuz Y, Bonjer HJ (2013) EAES consensus development conference on endoscopic repair of groin hernias. Surg Endosc 27:3505–3519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Bittner R, Arregui ME, Bisgaard T, Dudai M, Ferzli GS, Fitzgibbons RJ, Fortelny RH, Klinge U, Kockerling F, Kuhry E, Kukleta J, Lomanto D, Misra MC, Montgomery A, Morales-Conde S, Reinpold W, Rosenberg J, Sauerland S, Schug-Pass C, Singh K, Timoney M, Weyhe D, Chowbey P (2011) Guidelines for laparoscopic (TAPP) and endoscopic (TEP) treatment of inguinal hernia [International Endohernia Society (IEHS)]. Surg Endosc 25:2773–2843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Bittner R, Montgomery MA, Arregui E, Bansal V, Bingener J, Bisgaard T, Buhck H, Dudai M, Ferzli GS, Fitzgibbons RJ, Fortelny RH, Grimes KL, Klinge U, Köckerling F, Kumar S, Kukleta J, Lomanto D, Misra MC, Morales-Conde S, Reinpold W, Rosenberg J, Singh K, Timoney M, Weyhe D, Chowbey P (2015) Update of guidelines on laparoscopic (TAPP) and endoscopic (TEP) treatment of inguinal hernia (International Endohernia Society). Surg Endosc 29:289–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Andresen K, Burcharth J, Fonnes S, Hupfeld L, Rothman JP, Deigaard S, Winther D, Errebo MB, Therkildsen R, Hauge D, Sørensen FS, Bjerg J, Rosenberg J (2017) Chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair with the ONSTEP versus the Lichtenstein technique, results of a double-blinded multicenter randomized clinical trial. Langenbecks Arch Surg 402:213–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Andresen K, Burcharth J, Fonnes S, Hupfeld L, Rothman JP, Deigaard S, Winther D, Errebo MB, Therkildsen R, Hauge D, Sørensen FS, Bjerg J, Rosenberg J (2017) Sexual dysfunction after inguinal hernia repair with the Onstep versus Lichtenstein technique: a randomized clinical trial. Surgery 161:1690–1695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.Fletcher R, Fletcher S, Fletcher G (2014) Risk: from disease to exposure. In Clinical epidemiology: the essentials, 5th edn. Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar