Coagulation and deep vein flow changes following laparoscopic total extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair: a single-center, prospective cohort study
Background and purpose
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious complication encountered in surgical practice. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in coagulation status and deep vein flow parameters, within 24 h postoperatively, for patients undergoing laparoscopic total extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair (TEP).
For 144 patients undergoing TEP, coagulation markers including prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, D-dimer, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products (FDP), and international normalized ratio (INR) were monitored preoperatively and in the first morning postoperatively. Echo-Doppler recordings preoperatively and again within 24 h postoperatively were completed for 23 patients to monitor lower extremity deep vein flow parameters including speed of flow (cm/s), diameter (cm), and cross-sectional area (cm2). Clinically significant VTE and other complications were recorded.
No significant VTE were diagnosed. Significant increases were seen in the first morning postoperatively for PT, D-dimer, FDP, and INR (P < 0.05). Stratified by age, except for those < 50 years, the ratio of value-outside-the-normal-range (VONR) for D-dimer and FDP increased significantly postoperatively for all age groups. Stratified by operation duration, a significant difference in the ratio of VONR in D-dimer was identified postoperatively between those with an operation duration < 60 min and ≥ 60 min. There were significant decreases in the iliac and common femoral vein flow velocity of the ipsilateral extremity postoperatively (P < 0.05).
Activated hypercoagulability and hampered lower extremity deep vein flow were observed immediately after TEP. DVT formation was more pronounced in older patients and for those with operation duration ≥ 60 min. Proper VTE risk stratification for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair (LIHR) and prophylaxis early after LIHR should be important clinical considerations.
KeywordsInguinal hernia Total extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair Thromboembolism Coagulation status Femoral vein Iliac vein
Compliance with ethical standards
Chengguang Yang and Leiming Zhu have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.
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