Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 33, Issue 7, pp 2169–2180 | Cite as

Morphologic pattern analysis of submucosal deformities identified by endoscopic ultrasonography for predicting the depth of invasion in early gastric cancer

  • Tae Young Kim
  • Nam Hee Yi
  • Jin Won Hwang
  • Ji Hyun KimEmail author
  • Gwang Ha Kim
  • Mi Seon Kang



The aims of this study are to evaluate the usefulness of submucosal deformity pattern analysis with endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for predicting the depth of invasion in early gastric cancer (EGC) and the treatment results of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD).


The endoscopic and EUS parameters of 345 patients with endoscopically suspected EGC who underwent endoscopic or surgical resection between July 2012 and May 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were classified into three categories as follows according to the morphologic type of submucosal deformity identified by EUS: (1) no submucosal deformity, (2) wedge-shaped deformity, and (3) arch-shaped deformity. The presence of an arch-shaped submucosal deformity on EUS and an active endoscopic ulcer or surrounding mucosal fold convergence/clubbing on conventional endoscopy were defined as suggestive of deep submucosal cancer invasion (SCI).


Upper location (p = 0.034) and the presence of an arch-shaped submucosal deformity on EUS (p < 0.001) were significant predictors of deep submucosal invasion, with the presence of an arch-shaped submucosal deformity showing the highest predictive value (odds ratio of 26.27). The overall diagnostic accuracy of EUS for predicting deep SCI was 83.5%, with a sensitivity of 84.0% and a specificity of 83.3%, which were significantly higher than those of conventional endoscopy. A larger lesion size and the presence of an arch-shaped submucosal deformity were significant factors associated with noncurative resection after ESD.


Submucosal deformity pattern analysis with EUS can provide more accurate information than conventional endoscopy for predicting deep SCI. The presence of an arch-shaped submucosal deformity on EUS was an effective predictor of deep SCI and noncurative resection.


Endoscopic ultrasonography Early gastric cancer Submucosal deformity Depth of invasion 



This work was supported by 2018 Inje University Busan Paik Hospital research grant.

Compliance with ethical standards


Drs. Tae Young Kim, Nam Hee Yi, Jin Won Hwang, Ji Hyun Kim, Gwang Ha Kim, and Mi Seon Kang have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tae Young Kim
    • 1
  • Nam Hee Yi
    • 1
  • Jin Won Hwang
    • 1
  • Ji Hyun Kim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gwang Ha Kim
    • 2
  • Mi Seon Kang
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Gastroenterology, Busan Paik HospitalInje University College of MedicineBusanSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicinePusan National University School of MedicineBusanSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Pathology, Busan Paik HospitalInje University College of MedicineBusanSouth Korea

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