Comparison of laparoscopic to open pancreaticoduodenectomy in elderly patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma
The purpose of the study is to compare perioperative and survival outcomes in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD) to those undergoing open pancreaticoduodenectomy (OPD).
Patients aged ≥ 75 years with pancreatic adenocarcinoma undergoing LPD or OPD were identified from the NCDB (2010–2013). Baseline characteristics and perioperative outcomes were compared using a χ 2 and Student’s t test. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to generate survival curves, and differences were tested using a log-rank test. A multivariate cox proportional hazard model was applied to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of LPD on overall survival (OS).
We identified 1768 patients aged ≥ 75 years who underwent LPD (n = 248, 14.0%) or OPD (n = 1520, 86.0%). The majority of patients in the LPD group had their surgery at facilities performing less than 5 LPDs per year (n = 165, 66.5%). 90-day mortality was significantly lower in the LPD compared to the OPD (7.2 vs. 12.2%, p = 0.049). The laparoscopic conversion rate was 30% (n = 74) and was associated with higher readmission rates (13.5 vs. 8.1%), 30-day mortality (8.0 vs. 3.8%), and 90-day mortality (10.4 vs. 6.0%), but these did not reach statistical significance. Median OS was significantly longer in the LPD group (19.8 vs. 15.6 months, p = 0.022). After adjusting for patient and tumor-related characteristics, there was a trend towards improved survival in the LPD group (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.69–1.03).
The vast majority of the NCDB participating facilities perform less than 5 LPD cases per year, which was associated with an increased risk of perioperative mortality. Overall 90-day mortality was significantly lower in the LPD group and there was a trend towards improved OS in the LPD group compared to the OPD group after adjusting for patient and tumor-related characteristics. Studies with increased sample size and longer follow-up are needed before definitive conclusions can be made.
KeywordsPancreaticoduodenectomy Minimally invasive surgical procedures Laparoscopy Pancreatic cancer, adult Aged
This research was not funded and did not receive any specific grant funding from agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. This data has not been previously presented.
Compliance with ethical standards
Drs. Brandon C. Chapman, Csaba Gajdos, Patrick Hosokawa, William Henderson, Alessandro Paniccia, Douglas M. Overbey, Ana Gleisner, Richard D. Schulick, Martin D. McCarter, and Barish H. Edil have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.
- 1.Ortman JM VV, Hogan H (2014) An aging nation: the older population in the United States. Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 13.Fleshman J, Sargent DJ, Green E, Anvari M, Stryker SJ, Beart RW Jr, Hellinger M, Flanagan R Jr, Peters W, Nelson H (2007) Laparoscopic colectomy for cancer is not inferior to open surgery based on 5-year data from the COST Study Group trial. Ann Surg 246:655–662 (discussion 662–654)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 14.Kim HH, Hyung WJ, Cho GS, Kim MC, Han SU, Kim W, Ryu SW, Lee HJ, Song KY (2010) Morbidity and mortality of laparoscopic gastrectomy versus open gastrectomy for gastric cancer: an interim report: a phase III multicenter, prospective, randomized Trial (KLASS Trial). Ann Surg 251:417–420CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 17.Walker JL, Piedmonte MR, Spirtos NM, Eisenkop SM, Schlaerth JB, Mannel RS, Barakat R, Pearl ML, Sharma SK (2012) Recurrence and survival after random assignment to laparoscopy versus laparotomy for comprehensive surgical staging of uterine cancer: Gynecologic Oncology Group LAP2 Study. J Clin Oncol 30:695–700CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 18.Biere SS, van Berge Henegouwen MI, Maas KW, Bonavina L, Rosman C, Garcia JR, Gisbertz SS, Klinkenbijl JH, Hollmann MW, de Lange ES, Bonjer HJ, van der Peet DL, Cuesta MA (2012) Minimally invasive versus open oesophagectomy for patients with oesophageal cancer: a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 379:1887–1892CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.Kannan U, Reddy VS, Mukerji AN, Parithivel VS, Shah AK, Gilchrist BF, Farkas DT (2015) Laparoscopic vs open partial colectomy in elderly patients: insights from the American College of Surgeons: National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. World J Gastroenterol 21:12843–12850CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 29.Surveillance E, Results Program End SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Pancreas CancerGoogle Scholar
- 33.Network NCC (2017) NCCN guidelines version 1.2017. Pancreatic adenocarcinomaGoogle Scholar