Bronchogenic cysts are rare foregut abnormalities that arise from aberrant budding of the tracheobronchial tree early in embryological development. These cysts predominantly appear in the mediastinum, where they may compress nearby structures. Intra-abdominal bronchogenic cysts are rare. We report an intra-abdominal bronchogenic cyst that was excised laparoscopically.
A 40-year old female with a history of gastritis presented for evaluation of recurrent abdominal pain. A previous ultrasound showed cholelithiasis and a presumed portal cyst. Physical examination and laboratory findings were unremarkable. A CT scan with pancreatic protocol was performed and an intra-abdominal mass adherent to the esophagus was visualized. A laparascopic enucleation of the mass was performed. A 3-cm myotomy was made after circumferential dissection of the cyst and the decision was made intraoperatively to reapproximate the muscularis layer. A PubMed literature search on surgical management of esophageal bronchogenic cysts was subsequently performed.
The literature search performed on the subject of esophageal bronchogenic cysts found one review article focusing on intramural esophageal bronchogenic cysts in the mediastinum and five case reports of esophageal bronchogenic cysts. Of these, only one was both intraabdominal and managed laparascopically with simple closure of the resulting myotomy. The majority of the bronchogenic cysts mentioned in the literature were located mediastinally and were managed via open thoracotomy. Our findings confirm the rarity of this particular presentation and the unique means by which this cyst was surgically excised.
This case highlights the management of a rare entity and advocates for enucleation of noncommunicating, extraluminal esophageal bronchogenic cysts and closure of the esophageal muscular layers over intact mucosa as a viable surgical approach to this unusual pathology. Other cases of laparascopic enucleation of bronchogenic cysts have shown similarly uneventful postoperative courses and rapid recovery with no apparent return of symptoms.
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Dr. Dana Telem receives speaking honoraria from Gore, consulting honoraria from Ethicon and has a research funding from Cook. Dr. Aurora Pryor receives speaking honoraria from Gore and consulting honoraria from Freehold Medical. Dr. Maria Altieri, Dr. Alan Heimann, Dr. Soojin Ahn, and Richard Zheng have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.
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Altieri, M.S., Zheng, R., Pryor, A.D. et al. Esophageal bronchogenic cyst and review of the literature. Surg Endosc 29, 3010–3015 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-015-4082-4