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Endoscopic submucosal dissection training with ex vivo human gastric remnants



Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) offers en bloc resection of early cancer or precancerous lesions, potentially saving patients from major organ resection, such as gastrectomy, colectomy, and esophagectomy. Japan now leads the world in ESD due to its high rate of gastric cancer. Western countries, with their lower gastric cancer rates, do not get as much experience with the technique. Training in ESD utilizing both in vivo and ex vivo porcine stomach has been shown to decrease rates of perforation and operative time. Both models can be prohibitively expensive or not generally available to the majority of endoscopists on a regular basis. This study describes the framework for using human gastric remnants from sleeve gastrectomy patients for ESD training.


Patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity were consented for use of their gastric specimen before surgery. The specimen was weighed and measured by the pathologist and then used for ESD training. The specimen was mounted to a 15-mm laparoscopic port and secured using a pursestring suture. ESD was then performed through this port.


We were able to successfully use this model to resect multiple marked out lesions in an en bloc fashion. Training using this model has improved our dissection times from approximately 2 h to 30 min for a 2-cm simulated lesion.


ESD requires the endoscopist to perform a surgical dissection. Until now, development of these skills required intensive training on porcine models that are not widely available. We were able to create a method using the excised portion from sleeve gastrectomy patients, providing a more accessible and cost-effective model for ESD training and potentially other endoscopic therapeutic modalities.

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The authors thank the patients who allowed us to use their resected gastric specimens for the development of this new training model and also the endoscopy team for their help and use of the endoscopy equipment.


David V. Pham, Anand Shah, Frank J. Borao, and Steven Gorcey have no conflict of interest or financial ties to disclose.

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Correspondence to David V. Pham.

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Pham, D.V., Shah, A., Borao, F.J. et al. Endoscopic submucosal dissection training with ex vivo human gastric remnants. Surg Endosc 28, 222–226 (2014).

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  • Endoscopic submucosal dissection
  • Porcine
  • Gastric remnant
  • Ex vivo
  • En bloc