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Water-jet dissector for endoscopic submucosal dissection in an animal study: outcomes of the continuous and pulsed modes



Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allows en bloc resection of early neoplastic lesions of gastrointestinal tract. Lesions are lifted by submucosal fluid injection before circumferential incision and dissection. High-pressure fluid injection using water jet (WJ) technology is already used for lifting and dissection in surgery. The study was designed to assess WJ for ESD submucosal lifting and dissection.


An experimental, randomized comparative, “in vivo” nonsurvival animal study on 12 pigs was designed. Stomach mucosal areas were delineated and resected using three ESD techniques: technique A—syringe injection and IT knife dissection; technique B—WJ continuous injection and IT knife dissection; technique C—WJ injection and WJ pulsed dissection. Injection and dissection speeds and complications rates were assessed.


Water jet continuous injection is faster than syringe injection (B faster than A, p = 0.001 and B nonsignificantly faster than C, p = 0.06). IT knife dissection is significantly faster after WJ continuous injection (B faster than A, p = 0.003). WJ pulsed dissection is significantly slower than IT knife dissection (C slower than A and B, both p < 0.001). The overall procedure speed was significantly higher and the immediate bleedings rate was significantly lower for technique B than A and C (overall procedure speed p = 0.001, immediate bleedings p = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively). There were no perforations with any technique.


Water jet fluid continuous injection speeds up ESD, whereas pulsed WJ dissection does not.

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Doctors Vincent Lepilliez, Mihai Ciocirlan, Carlos Robles-Medranda, Hannah Lukashok, Marwan Chemaly, Stephan Langonnet, Sabrina Chesnais, Valerie Hervieu, and Professor Thierry Ponchon have no conflict of interest or financial ties to disclose.

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Correspondence to Vincent Lepilliez or Mihai Ciocirlan.

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Lepilliez, V., Robles-Medranda, C., Ciocirlan, M. et al. Water-jet dissector for endoscopic submucosal dissection in an animal study: outcomes of the continuous and pulsed modes. Surg Endosc 27, 2921–2927 (2013).

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  • Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)
  • In vivo animal study
  • Water-jet technology