pp 1–18 | Cite as

The Influence of Age, Sex, Visual Feedback, Bulb Position, and the Order of Testing on Maximum Anterior and Posterior Tongue Strength in Healthy Belgian Children

  • Jan VanderwegenEmail author
  • Gwen Van Nuffelen
  • Rik Elen
  • Marc De Bodt
Original Article


Tongue strength and its role in the pathophysiology of dysphagia in adults are well accepted and studied. An objective and reliable measurement of tongue strength in children necessitates equally good methodology, knowledge of influencing factors, and normative data. Only limited data on testing tongue strength in children are available thereby limiting its potential use. The present study examined tongue strength and several parameters known to be important in adults in the largest sample of healthy children from 3 to 11 years old to date using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument with standard bulbs. Tongue strength increases markedly for children between 6 and 7 years, with slower increases before and after this age. Unlike adults, no influence of sex or location was found on the maximum tongue strength in children, and visual feedback was found to be counterproductive in obtaining the highest tongue pressures. The normative data obtained can be used for objective assessment of tongue weakness and subsequent therapy planning in dysphagic children.


Tongue Strength assessment Children Age-related changes Deglutition Deglutition disorders 



The authors wish to thank Ellen De Keersmaecker and Janne Fret for their invaluable help in collecting the data.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Speech-Pathology and AudiologyThomas More University College of Applied SciencesAntwerpBelgium
  2. 2.Department of OtorhinolaryngologyUMC Saint-PierreBrusselsBelgium
  3. 3.Department of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery-Rehabilitation Center for Communication DisordersAntwerp University HospitalAntwerpBelgium
  4. 4.Faculty of Speech-Pathology and AudiologyGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  5. 5.Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversity of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium

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