Advertisement

Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 233–243 | Cite as

Startup strategy for nitrogen removal via nitrite in a BAF system

  • Jordi Gabarró
  • Miriam Guivernau
  • Laura Burgos
  • Oswald Garanto
  • August BonmatíEmail author
Research Paper

Abstract

A biological aerated filter (BAF) pilot plant consisting of two reactors (aerobic and anoxic one) was used to determine a strategy to remove nitrogen via nitrite. RNA/DNA analysis was performed to assess microbial activity and support chemical results. In less than 13 days the pilot plant was able to remove COD and suspended solids. Nitrogen removal via nitrite pathway could not be observed until day 130 when the empty bed contact time (EBCT) was set at 0.71 h. Nitrite was detected in the aerated BAF effluent but never nitrate. qPCR of amoA gene from RNA and DNA extracts of the aerobic biofilm confirmed that ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were present from the beginning of the operation but not active. AOB activity increased with time, reaching stability from operational day 124. The combination of both, low EBCT together with high OLR, has been demonstrated to be a feasible strategy to startup a BAF to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

RNA Nitrite Ammonia oxidizing bacteria Partial nitrification NGS 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors would like to thank the valuable technical help of Aida Lopez during part of the experimental study as well as to the Caldes de Montbui WWTP workers Victor Mejias and Fran Cosano and the support given by the WWTP operator (Consorci de la Conca del Besòs). This work was funded by CDTI IDI-20140237 and PESA Medio Ambiente. The support of the CERCA Program and of the Consolidated Research Group TERRA (ref. 2017 SGR 1290), both from the Generalitat de Catalunya, is also acknowledged.

Supplementary material

449_2018_2028_MOESM1_ESM.docx (25 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 24 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    Metcalf E (2003) Wastewater engineering, treatment and reuse. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chang WS, Hong SW, Park J (2002) Effect of zeolite media for the treatment of textile wastewater in a biological aerated filter. Process Biochem 37:693–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Farabegoli G, Chiavola A, Rolle E (2009) The Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) as alternative treatment for domestic sewage. Optimization of plant performance. J Hazard Mater 171:1126–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Farabegoli G, Chiavola A, Rolle E, Stracquadanio S (2004) Experimental study on nitrification in a submerged aerated biofilter. Water Science Technology 49:107–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pujol R, Hamon M, Kandel X, Lemmel H (1994) Biofilters: flexible, reliable biological reactors. Water Sci Technol 29:33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mendoza-Espinosa L, Stephenson T (1999) A review of biological aerated filters (BAFs) for wastewater treatment. Environ Eng Sci 16:201–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ryu H-D, Kim J-S, Kang M-K, Lee S-I (2014) Enhanced nitrification at short hydraulic retention time using a 3-stage biological aerated filter system incorporating an organic polishing reactor. Sep Purif Technol 136:199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Turk O, Mavinic DS (1989) Maintaining nitrite build-up in a system acclimated to free ammonia. Water Res 23:1383–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gabarró J, González-Cárcamo P, Ruscalleda M, Ganigué R, Gich F, Balaguer M, Colprim J (2014) Anoxic phases are the main N 2 O contributor in partial nitritation reactors treating high nitrogen loads with alternate aeration. Bioresour Technol 163:92–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hellinga C, Schellen A, Mulder J, Van Loosdrecht M, Heijnen J (1998) The SHARON process: an innovative method for nitrogen removal from ammonium-rich waste water. Water Sci Technol 37:135–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Antileo C, Werner A, Ciudad G, Muñoz C, Bornhardt C, Jeison D, Urrutia H (2006) Novel operational strategy for partial nitrification to nitrite in a sequencing batch rotating disk reactor. Biochem Eng J 32:69–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guo J, Peng Y, Yang X, Gao C, Wang S (2013) Combination process of limited filamentous bulking and nitrogen removal via nitrite for enhancing nitrogen removal and reducing aeration requirements. Chemosphere 91:68–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Joo S-H, Kim D-J, Yoo I-K, Park K, Cha G-C (2000) Partial nitrification in an upflow biological aerated filter by O2 limitation. Biotech Lett 22:937–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee Y, Chung J, Jeong Y, Shim H, Kim M (2006) Backwash based methodology for the estimation of solids retention time in biological aerated filter. Environ Technol 27:777–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gabarró J, Ganigué R, Gich F, Ruscalleda M, Balaguer MD, Colprim J (2012) Effect of temperature on AOB activity of a partial nitritation SBR treating landfill leachate with extremely high nitrogen concentration. Bioresour Technol 126:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gabarró J, Hernández-del Amo E, Gich F, Ruscalleda M, Balaguer M, Colprim J (2013) Nitrous oxide reduction genetic potential from the microbial community of an intermittently aerated partial nitritation SBR treating mature landfill leachate. Water Res 47:7066–7077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hallin S, Throbäck IN, Dicksved J, Pell M (2006) Metabolic profiles and genetic diversity of denitrifying communities in activated sludge after addition of methanol or ethanol. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:5445–5452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Khan ST, Horiba Y, Yamamoto M, Hiraishi A (2002) Members of the family Comamonadaceae as primary poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)-degrading denitrifiers in activated sludge as revealed by a polyphasic approach. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:3206–3214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kristiansen A, Pedersen KH, Nielsen PHR, Nielsen LP, Nielsen JL, Schramm A (2011) Bacterial community structure of a full-scale biofilter treating pig house exhaust air. Syst Appl Microbiol 34:344–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sotres A, Cerrillo M, Viñas M, Bonmatà A (2016) Nitrogen removal in a two-chambered microbial fuel cell: Establishment of a nitrifying-denitrifying microbial community on an intermittent aerated cathode. Chem Eng J 284:905–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    APHA (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation, American Public Health AssociationGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Prenafeta-Boldú FX, Guivernau M, Gallastegui G, Viñas M, Hoog GS, Elías A (2012) Fungal/bacterial interactions during the biodegradation of TEX hydrocarbons (toluene, ethylbenzene and p-xylene) in gas biofilters operated under xerophilic conditions. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 80:722–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rotthauwe J-H, Witzel K-P, Liesack W (1997) The ammonia monooxygenase structural gene amoA as a functional marker: molecular fine-scale analysis of natural ammonia-oxidizing populations. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:4704–4712Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Qiu L, Zhang S, Wang G, Du M (2010) Performances and nitrification properties of biological aerated filters with zeolite, ceramic particle and carbonate media. Bioresour Technol 101:7245–7251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhao Y, Yue Q, Li R, Yue M, Han S, Gao B, Li Q, Yu H (2009) Research on sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) for synthetic and municipal wastewater treatment in biological aerated filter (BAF). Bioresour Technol 100:4955–4962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Martins AMP, Heijnen JJ, van Loosdrecht MCM (2004) Bulking sludge in biological nutrient removal systems. Biotechnol Bioeng 86:125–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Batstone DJ, Keller J, Angelidaki I, Kalyuzhnyi S, Pavlostathis S, Rozzi A, Sanders W, Siegrist H, Vavilin V (2002) The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1(ADM 1). Water Sci Technol 45:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Henze M (2000) Activated sludge models ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d and ASM3. IWA publishingGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Park S, Bae W, Rittmann BE (2009) Operational boundaries for nitrite accumulation in nitrification based on minimum/maximum substrate concentrations that include effects of oxygen limitation, pH, and free ammonia and free nitrous acid inhibition. Environ Sci Technol 44:335–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Villaverde S, Fdz-Polanco F, García P (2000) Nitrifying biofilm acclimation to free ammonia in submerged biofilters. Start-up influence. Water Res 34:602–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Garrido J, Van Benthum W, Van Loosdrecht M, Heijnen J (1997) Influence of dissolved oxygen concentration on nitrite accumulation in a biofilm airlift suspension reactor. Biotechnol Bioeng 53:168–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nogueira R, Melo LÌsF, Purkhold U, Wuertz S, Wagner M (2002) Nitrifying and heterotrophic population dynamics in biofilm reactors: effects of hydraulic retention time and the presence of organic carbon. Water Res 36:469–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Song K, Suenaga T, Harper WF Jr, Hori T, Riya S, Hosomi M, Terada A (2015) Effects of aeration and internal recycle flow on nitrous oxide emissions from a modified Ludzak–Ettinger process fed with glycerol. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:19562–19570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Feng C-J, Zhang Z-J, Wang S-M, Fang F, Ye Z-L, Chen S-H (2013) Characterization of microbial community structure in a hybrid biofilm-activated sludge reactor for simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal. J Environ Biol 34:489–499Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Weissbrodt DG, Lochmatter S, Ebrahimi S, Rossi P, Maillard J, Holliger C (2012) Bacterial selection during the formation of early-stage aerobic granules in wastewater treatment systems operated under wash-out dynamics. Front Microbiol 3:332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ahn JH, Kim S, Park H, Rahm B, Pagilla K, Chandran K (2010) N2O emissions from activated sludge processes, 2008–2009: results of a national monitoring survey in the United States. Environ Sci Technol 44:4505–4511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pan Y, Ni B-J, Bond PL, Ye L, Yuan Z (2013) Electron competition among nitrogen oxides reduction during methanol-utilizing denitrification in wastewater treatment. Water Res 47:3273–3281CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GIRO, Institute of Agrifood Research and Technology (IRTA)BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.PESA Medio AmbienteSant Cugat del VallèsSpain
  3. 3.TELWE S.A.LlagosteraSpain

Personalised recommendations