Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering

, Volume 42, Issue 1, pp 47–61 | Cite as

Enhanced biocatalytic activity of immobilized steapsin lipase in supercritical carbon dioxide for production of biodiesel using waste cooking oil

  • Vivek C. Badgujar
  • Kirtikumar C. Badgujar
  • Pravin M. Yeole
  • Bhalchandra M. BhanageEmail author
Research Paper


The present work reports covalent immobilization of steapsin lipase (SL) on Immobead-350 support matrix (IMB) to make a robust biocatalytic system to work under supercritical carbon dioxide condition (Sc-CO2). The developed biocatalyst (IMB:SL) was characterized in details and utilized to convert waste cooking sunflower oil (WCSO) into value-added energy chemical (biodiesel) in Sc-CO2. All reaction process parameters were optimized in detail which offered 86.33% yield of biodiesel from WCSO. The developed Sc-CO2 protocol is compared with the solvent-free conventional synthesis, which indicates almost twofold higher yield of biodiesel in Sc-CO2 media as compared to solvent-free condition. To extend the scope, we have tested fresh and waste cooking oils (WCO) from various sources, offering 81–94% yield of biodiesel. The biocatalyst activity was investigated in various parameters of supercritical condition to know the biocatalyst stability in Sc-CO2. Besides this, IMB:SL biocatalyst was effectively reused up to five recycle.


Biocatalysis Biodiesel synthesis Waste feedstock Waste cooking oil Steapsin in Sc-CO2 



The author VCB and KCB are greatly thankful to ChiralVision, The Netherlands, who offered Immobeads 350 (IMB) as a generous gift sample for the research study. In addition, the author VCB is greatly thankful to the Rajiv Gandhi Science and Technology Commission (RGS & TC) research funding scheme, conducted by North Maharashtra University (NMU), Jalgaon, for their financial support (Ref. No: NMU/11/RGS&TC/438/215; Project Code: 51-ENV_LSR).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vivek C. Badgujar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kirtikumar C. Badgujar
    • 1
    • 3
  • Pravin M. Yeole
    • 4
  • Bhalchandra M. Bhanage
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryInstitute of Chemical TechnologyMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryPratap College of Arts, Science and CommerceAmalnerIndia
  3. 3.Department of ChemistrySIES College of Arts, Science and CommerceMumbaiIndia
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryR. L. College of Arts and ScienceParolaIndia

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