Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Economics of the hydrolysis of cellulosic sludge to glucose

  • 293 Accesses

  • 2 Citations

Abstract

Cellulosic sludge from paper mills making bleached products can be enzymatically converted to glucose. A kinetic model that accounts for product inhibition was used to estimate the cost:benefits of the process. In the proposed scheme, the sludge is enzymatically hydrolyzed in a sequence of CSTRs, the ash separated, and the product glucose concentrated through reverse osmosis. The water recovered is mostly recycled. By far, the most important economic variable is the value of the glucose. However, even if the glucose is assumed to be of no value the avoided cost of sludge disposal approximately offsets the process costs. The approach should generate significant revenue if the glucose is valued at market.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. 1.

    Moreira NE, Malcata FX (1996) On the optimum distribution of enzyme feed in a cascade of CSTR’s performing an enzyme-catalyzed reaction with deactivation. Bioproc Eng 15(1996):301–306

  2. 2.

    Quiroga AG, Costa A, Filho RM (2010) Analysis of conversion and operation strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in a series of CSTRs with distributed feeding. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 33:901–910

  3. 3.

    Andrić P, Meyer AS, Jensen PA, Dam-Johansen K (2010) Reactor design for minimizing product inhibition during enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: I. Significance and mechanism of cellobiose and glucose inhibition on cellulolytic enzymes. Biotechnol Adv 28:308–324

  4. 4.

    Malcata FX (1997) Economic criteria in the design of CSTRs for the performance of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Can J Chem Eng 75(5):984–989

  5. 5.

    Mora S, Lu J, Banerjee S (2011) Mechanism of rate enhancement of wood fiber saccharification by cationic polyelectrolytes. Biotechnol Lett 33:1805–1808

  6. 6.

    Linder M, Teeri TA (1996) The cellulose-binding domain of the major cellobiohydrolase of Trichoderma reesei exhibits true reversibility and a high exchange rate on crystalline cellulose. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:12251–12255

  7. 7.

    Kipper K, Väljamäe P, Johansson G (2005) Processive action of cellobiohydrolase Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei is revealed as ‘burst’ kinetics on fluorescent polymeric model substrates. Biochem J 385:527–535

  8. 8.

    Kang L, Wang W, Lee YY (2010) Bioconversion of kraft paper mill sludges to ethanol by SSF and SSCF. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 161(1–8):53–66

  9. 9.

    Kang L, Pallapolu VR, Lee YY (2011) Enhanced ethanol production from de-ashed paper sludge by SSF and SSCF. BioRes 6(4):3791–3808

  10. 10.

    Shen H, Agblevor EA (2008) Optimization of enzyme loading and hydrolytic time in the hydrolysis of mixtures of cotton gin waste and recycled paper sludge for the maximum profit rate. Biochem Eng J 41:241–250

  11. 11.

    Banerjee S (2011) Glucose from paper mill sludge. BioRes 6:4739–4746

  12. 12.

    Zheng Y, Pan Z, Zhang R, Jenkins BM (2009) Kinetic modeling for enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated creeping wild ryegrass. Biotechnol Bioeng 102:1558–1569

  13. 13.

    Lu J, Reye J, Banerjee S (2010) Temperature dependence of cellulase hydrolysis of paper fiber. Biomass Bioenergy 34:1973–1977

  14. 14.

    Reye JT, Maxwell KE, Banerjee S (2011) Cationic polyacrylamides promote binding of cellulase and amylase. J Biotechnol 154:269–273

  15. 15.

    Teter SA (2012) Development of a commercial ready enzyme application system for ethanol. doi:10.2172/1039767

  16. 16.

    Reye JT, Lu J, Maxwell KE, Banerjee S (2011) Enhancement of cellulase catalysis of wood pulp fiber by cationic polyelectrolytes. Biomass Bioenergy 35:4887–4891

  17. 17.

    USDA Economic Research Service (2012) http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/sugar-and-sweeteners-yearbook-tables.aspx

  18. 18.

    Arroyo J, Shirazi S (2009) Cost of water desalination in Texas. http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/innovativewater/desal/doc/Cost_of_Desalination_in_Texas.pdf

  19. 19.

    Karagiannis IC, Soldatos PG (2008) Water desalination cost literature: review and assessment. Desalination 223:448–456

  20. 20.

    Tu M, Chandra RP, Saddler JN (2007) Evaluating the distribution of cellulases and the recycling of free cellulases during the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates. Biotechnol Prog 23:398–406

  21. 21.

    Eriksson T, Börjesson J, Tjerneld F (2002) Mechanism of surfactant effect in enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Enz Microb Technol 31:353–364

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was partially funded by the Eka Chemicals division of Akzo Nobel. Sandeep Mora thanks the Institute of Paper Science and Technology for fellowship support.

Author information

Correspondence to Sujit Banerjee.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mora, S., Banerjee, S. Economics of the hydrolysis of cellulosic sludge to glucose. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 36, 1039–1042 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-012-0856-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Enzyme
  • Sludge
  • Fiber
  • Glucose