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UASB/Flash aeration enable complete treatment of municipal wastewater for reuse

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Abstract

A simple, efficient and cost-effective method for municipal wastewater treatment is examined in this paper. The municipal wastewater is treated using an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor followed by flash aeration (FA) as the post-treatment, without implementing aerobic biological processes. The UASB reactor was operated without recycle, at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h and achieved consistent removal of BOD, COD and TSS of 60–70% for more than 12 months. The effect of FA on UASB effluent post-treatment was studied at different HRT (15, 30 and 60 min) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (low DO = 1–2 mg/L and high DO = 5–6 mg/L). The optimum conditions for BOD, COD and sulfide removal were 30–60 min HRT and high DO concentration inside the FA tank. The final effluent after clarification was characterized by BOD and COD values of 28–35 and 50–58 mg/L, respectively. Sulfides were removed by more than 80%, but the fecal coliform only by ~2 log. The UASB followed by FA is a simple and efficient process for municipal wastewater treatment, except for fecal coliform, enabling water and nutrients recycling to agriculture.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Petroleum Conservation Research Association, an autonomus body of the Ministry of Petroleum & Gas, Govt. of India, New Delhi, India, for financial supports.

Author information

Correspondence to Abid Ali Khan.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Figure S1 (Fig. 1) Process operational parameters for the UASB reactor treating original municipal wastewater. The COD concentrations are given during the study period. (TIFF 310 kb)

Figure S1 (Fig. 2) Process operational parameters for the UASB reactor treating original municipal wastewater. The BOD concentrations are given during the study period. (TIFF 258 kb)

Figure S1 (Fig. 3) Process operational parameters for the UASB reactor treating original municipal wastewater. The TSS concentrations are given during the study period. (TIFF 258 kb)

Figure S1 (Fig. 4) Process operational parameters for the UASB reactor treating original municipal wastewater. The FC concentrations are given during the study period. (TIFF 283 kb)

Figure S2. Average values of ammonia nitrogen concentration at the influent and the effluent of the UASB reactor and the effluent of the FA tank, as a function of the hydraulic retention time and the dissolved oxygen concentration. (TIFF 347 kb)

Figure S3. Variation of sulfides, sulfates and DO concentration during batch aeration of UASB reactor effluent. (TIFF 157 kb)

Figure S4. Effect of oxidation reduction potential (ORP) on FC removal during the flash aeration process. (TIFF 147 kb)

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Khan, A.A., Gaur, R.Z., Lew, B. et al. UASB/Flash aeration enable complete treatment of municipal wastewater for reuse. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 35, 907–913 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-011-0675-z

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Keywords

  • Municipal wastewater
  • UASB post treatment
  • Diffused aeration
  • Sustainable treatment
  • Nutrients recovery
  • Fecal coliform