Bulletin of Volcanology

, 81:72 | Cite as

Petrology of the 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof Island, Alaska

  • Matthew W. LoewenEmail author
  • Pavel Izbekov
  • Jamshid Moshrefzadeh
  • Michelle Coombs
  • Jessica Larsen
  • Nathan Graham
  • Michelle Harbin
  • Christopher Waythomas
  • Kristi Wallace
Research Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. The 2016-17 shallow submarine eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska


The 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof primarily produced crystal-rich amphibole basalts. The dominant juvenile tephra were highly microlitic with diktytaxitic vesicles, and amphiboles had large reaction rims. Both observations support a magma history of slow ascent and/or shallow stalling prior to eruption. Plagioclase-amphibole-clinopyroxene mineralogy are also suggestive of shallow magma crystallization. Lavas were emplaced as shallow submarine lava domes and cryptodomes that produced 70 relatively short-lived and water-rich explosions over the course of the 9-month-long eruption. The explosions ejected older trachyandesite lavas that were likely uplifted by cryptodome emplacement that began in December 2016 and continued for many months. Trachyte pumice, similar in composition to a 1796 lava dome, was entrained in basalts by the end of the eruption. The pumice appears to be a largely crystalline magma that was rejuvenated, entrained in the basalt, and heated to ~ 1000 °C. The composition of trachytes require differentiation through stronger amphibole control than the apparent shallow crustal evolution implied for the basalt. This suggests that they are magmas derived from a mid-crustal zone of amphibole crystallization. Nearby arc-front volcanoes that notably lack amphibole have strikingly similar compositional trends. Trace element signatures of the Bogoslof basalts, however, suggest derivation from a mantle source with residual garnet and lower-degree melting than basalts from nearby arc-front volcanoes. The diversity of magmas erupted at Bogoslof thus provides an opportunity not only to probe rare backarc compositions from the Aleutian arc but also to examine the apparent role of amphibole in generating evolved compositions more broadly in arc environments.


Backarc Lava domes Surtseyan eruptions Amphibole basalt Trachyte 



Sample preparation and some SEM imaging assistance was provided by Fiona Eberhardt. The crew of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service R/V Tiglax helped with field and logistical support to collect 2018 samples. The manuscript was developed and improved especially by discussions with Tom Sisson, Alexa Van Eaton, and Heather Wright, as well as constructive reviews by Dawnika Blatter, an anonymous reviewer, and editorial handling by John Lyons. Funding for this study was provided by the U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

Supplementary material

445_2019_1333_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (190 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 189 kb).
445_2019_1333_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (277 kb)
ESM 2 (XLSX 276 kb).


  1. Arculus RJ, Delong SE, Kay RW, Brooks C, Sun SS (1977) The alkalic rock suite of Bogoslof Island, Eastern Aleutian Arc, Alaska. J Geol 85:177–186. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arculus RJ, Johnson RW, Chappell BW, McKee CO, Sakai H (1983) Ophiolite-contaminated andesites, trachybasalts, and cognate inclusions of Mount Lamington, Papua New Guinea: anhydrite-amphibole-bearing lavas and the 1951 cumulodome. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 18:215–247. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bacon CR, Hirschmann MM (1988) Mg/Mn partitioning as a test for equilibrium between coexisting Fe-Ti oxides. Am Mineral 73:57–61Google Scholar
  4. Barclay J, Carmichael IS (2004) A hornblende basalt from Western Mexico: water-saturated phase relations constrain a pressure-temperature window of eruptibility. J Petrol 45:485–506. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bean KW (1999) The Holocene eruptive history of Makushin Volcano, Alaska. Dissertation, University of Alaska, Fairbanks.Google Scholar
  6. Byers FM (1961) Petrology of three volcanic suites, Umnak and Bogoslof Islands, Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Geol Soc Am Bull 72:93–128.[93:POTVSU]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Coombs ML, Wech A, Haney M, Lyons J, Schneider DJ, Schwaiger H, Wallace K, Fee D, Freymueller J, Schaefer J (2018) Short-term forecasting and detection of explosions during the 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska. Front Earth Sci 6:122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coombs M, Wallace K, Cameron C, Lyons J, Wech A, Angeli K, Cervelli P (2019) Overview, chronology, and impacts of the 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska. Bull Volcanol 81:62.
  9. Davidson J, Turner S, Handley H, Macpherson CG, Dosseto A (2007) Amphibole “sponge” in arc crust? Geology 35:787–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davidson J, Turner S, Plank T (2013) Dy/Dy*: variations arising from mantle sources and petrogenetic processes. J Petrol 54:525–537. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Finney B, Turner S, Hawkesworth C, Larsen J, Nye C, George R, Bindeman I, Eichelberger J (2008) Magmatic differentiation at an island-arc caldera: Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska. J Petrol 49:857–884. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gaunt HE, Bernard B, Hidalgo S, Proaño A, Wright H, Mothes P, Criollo E, Kueppers U (2016) Juvenile magma recognition and eruptive dynamics inferred from the analysis of ash time series: The 2015 reawakening of Cotopaxi volcano. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 328:134–146. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ghiorso MS, Evans BW (2008) Thermodynamics of rhombohedral oxide solid solutions and a revision of the Fe-Ti two-oxide geothermometer and oxygen-barometer. Am J Sci 308:957–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jicha BR, Hart GL, Johnson CM, Hildreth W, Beard BL, Shirey SB, Valley JW (2009) Isotopic and trace element constraints on the petrogenesis of lavas from the Mount Adams volcanic field, Washington. Contrib Mineral Petrol 157:189–207. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Johnson DM, Hooper PR, Conrey RM (1999) XRF analysis of rocks and minerals for major and trace elements on a single low dilution Li-tetraborate fused bead. Adv X-ray Anal 41:843–867Google Scholar
  16. Kushnir ARL, Martel C, Bourdier JL, Heap MJ, Reuschlé T, Erdmann S, Komorowski J, Cholik N (2016) Probing permeability and microstructure: Unravelling the role of a low-permeability dome on the explosivity of Merapi (Indonesia). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 316:56–71. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Le Maitre RW, Bateman P, Dudek A, Keller J, Lameyre Le Bas MJ, Sabine PA, Schmid R, Sorensen H, Streckeisen A, Wooley AR, Xanettin B (1989) A classification of igneous rock and glossary of terms. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  18. Lopez T, Clarisse L, Schwaiger H, Van Eaton A, Loewen M, Fee D, Lyons J, Wallace K, Searcy C, Wech A, Haney M, Schneider D, Graham N (2019) Constraints on eruption processes and event masses for the 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska, through evaluation of IASI satellite SO2 masses and complementary datasets. Bull Volcanol (part of the Bogoslof Topical Collection)Google Scholar
  19. Lowenstern JB, Pitcher BW (2013) Analysis of H2O in silicate glass using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) micro-FTIR spectroscopy. Am Mineral 98:1660–1668. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Luhr JF, Carmichael ISE (1985) Jorullo Volcano, Michoacán, Mexico (1759–1774): The earliest stages of fractionation in calc-alkaline magmas. Contrib Mineral Petrol 90:142–161. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lyons JJ, Iezzi AM, Fee D, Schwaiger HF, Wech AG, Haney MM (2019a) Infrasound generated by the shallow submarine eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska. Bull Volcanol (part of the Bogoslof Topical Collection)Google Scholar
  22. Lyons JJ, Haney MM, Fee D, Wech AG, Waythomas CF (2019b) Infrasound from giant bubbles during explosive submarine eruptions. Nat Geosci 12: 952–958. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Marsh BD (1981) On the crystallinity, probability of occurrence, and rheology of lava and magma. Contrib Mineral Petrol 78:85–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Marsh BD, Leitz RE (1978) Geology of Amak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska. J Geol 87:715–723. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McConnell VS, Beget JE, Roach AL, Bean KW, Nye CJ (1998) Geologic map of the Makushin volcanic field, Unalaska Island, Alaska. Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Report of Investigation 97-20, unpaged, 2 sheets, scale 1:63,360.Google Scholar
  26. Miyashiro A (1974) Volcanic rock series in island arcs and active continental margins. Am J Sci 274:321–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nielsen CH, Sigurdsson H (1981) Quantitative methods for electron micro-probe analysis of sodium in natural and synthetic glasses. Am Mineral 66:547–552Google Scholar
  28. Nye CJ, Reid MR (1986) Geochemistry of primary and least fractionated lavas from Okmok volcano, Central Aleutians: implications for arc magmagenesis. J Geophys Res 9:10,271–10,287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nye CJ, Swanson SE, Reeder JW (1986) Petrology and geochemistry of Quaternary volcanic rocks from Makushin volcano, central Aleutian Arc. Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Public-Data File 86-80: 123 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:50,000.Google Scholar
  30. Nye CJ, Beget JE, Layer PW, Mangan MT, McConnell VS, McGimsey RG, Miller TP, Moore RB, Stelling PL (2018) Geochemistry of some quaternary lavas from the Aleutian Arc and Mt. Wrangell. Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Raw Data File 2018: 1-29 p.
  31. Rutherford MJ, Hill P (1993) Magma ascent rates from amphibole breakdown: an experimental study applied to the 1980–1986 Mount St. Helens eruptions. J Geophys Res 98:19667–19685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schneider DJ, Van Eaton AR, Wallace KL (2019) Satellite observations of the 2016–17 eruption of Bogoslof volcano: aviation and ash fallout hazard implications from a water-rich eruption. Bull Volcanol (part of the Bogoslof Topical Collection)Google Scholar
  33. Searcy CK, Power JA (2019) Seismic character and progression of explosive activity during the 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska. Bull Volcanol.
  34. Sigurdsson H, Shepherd JB (1974) Amphibole-bearing basalts from the submarine volcano Kick'em-Jenny in the Lesser Antilles island arc. Bull Volcanol 38:891. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tepp G, Dziak R, Haney M, Lyons J, Searcy C, Matsumoto H, Haxel J (2019) Seismic and hydroacoustic observations of the 2016–17 Bogoslof Eruption. Bull Volcanol.
  36. Turner S, Foden J, George R, Evans P, Varne R, Elburg M, Jenner G (2003) Rates and processes of potassic magma evolution beneath Sangeang Api volcano, east Sunda arc, Indonesia. J Petrol 44:491–515. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Van Eaton AR, Schneider DJ, Smith CM, Haney MM, Lyons JJ, Said R, Fee D, Holzworth RH, Mastin LG (2019) Did ice-charging generate volcanic lightning during the 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska? Bull Volcanol (part of the Bogoslof Topical Collection)Google Scholar
  38. Waters LE, Cottrell E, Kelly K, Coombs ML (2017) Calc-alkaline liquid lines of descent produced under oxidizing conditions: an experimental and petrologic study of basaltic tephras from the Western Aleutians, AK. Abstract V11B-0343 presented at 2017 AGU Fall Meeting, New Orleans, LA, 11-15 Dec.Google Scholar
  39. Waythomas CF, Cameron CE (2018) Historical eruptions and hazards at Bogoslof Volcano, Alaska. U.S. Geol Surv Sci Investig Rep 2018-5085:1–54Google Scholar
  40. Waythomas CF, Angeli K, Wessels RL (2019a) Evolution of the submarine-subaerial edifice of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska, during its 2016–2017 eruption based on analysis of satellite imagery. Bull Volcanol (part of the Bogoslof Topical Collection)Google Scholar
  41. Waythomas CF, Loewen MW, Wallace KL, Cameron CE, Larsen JF (2019b) Geology and eruptive history of Bogoslof volcano. Bull Volcanol (part of the Bogoslof Topical Collection)Google Scholar
  42. Wech A, Tepp G, Lyons J, Haney M (2018) Using earthquakes, T waves, and infrasound to investigate the eruption of Bogoslof Volcano, Alaska. Geophys Res Lett 45:6918–6925. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. White J, Houghton B (2000) Surtseyan and related phreatomagmatic eruptions. In: Sigurdsson H, Houghton B, Rymer H, Stix J, McNutt S (eds) , 1st edn. Academic Press, Encyclopedia of volcanoes, pp 495–511Google Scholar
  44. White J, Schipper C, Kano K (2015) Submarine explosive eruptions. In: Sigurdsson H, Houghton B, McNutt S, Rymer H, Stix J (eds) Encyclopedia of volcanoes, 2nd edn. Academic Press, pp 553–569Google Scholar
  45. Yogodzinski GM, Brown ST, Kelemen PB, Vervoort JD, Portnyagin M, Sims KWW, Hoernle K, Jicha BR, Werner R (2015) The role of subducted basalt in the source of island arc magmas: evidence from seafloor lavas of the Western Aleutians. J Petrol 56:441–492. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew W. Loewen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pavel Izbekov
    • 2
  • Jamshid Moshrefzadeh
    • 2
  • Michelle Coombs
    • 1
  • Jessica Larsen
    • 2
  • Nathan Graham
    • 2
  • Michelle Harbin
    • 3
  • Christopher Waythomas
    • 1
  • Kristi Wallace
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Geological SurveyAlaska Volcano ObservatoryAnchorageUSA
  2. 2.University of Alaska FairbanksAlaska Volcano ObservatoryFairbanksUSA
  3. 3.University of Alaska FairbanksAlaska Satellite FacilityFairbanksUSA

Personalised recommendations