Advertisement

Bulletin of Volcanology

, 81:56 | Cite as

Seismic reflection and petrographic interpretation of a buried monogenetic volcanic Field (part 1)

  • Alan BischoffEmail author
  • Marcos Rossetti
  • Andrew Nicol
  • Ben Kennedy
Research Article

Abstract

Buried volcanoes occur in great numbers within sedimentary basins globally. Knowledge of ancient buried volcanic systems has improved significantly over the past two decades. The in-depth understanding of these buried systems was mainly possible due to increasing availability of high-quality seismic reflection and subsurface borehole data. This paper examines a cluster of Miocene volcanoes now buried by ca. 1000 m of sedimentary strata in the Canterbury Basin, New Zealand. These volcanoes were imaged by 2D seismic lines and perforated by the Resolution-1 borehole. We refer to this group of volcanoes and related intrusive bodies as the Maahunui Volcanic Field (MVF). Here, we present detailed petrographic and seismic reflection interpretation of some representative volcanoes of the MVF, and of the strata that enclose them, to constrain the environments in which intrusions and eruptions occurred. Intrusive rocks penetrated by the Resolution-1 comprise a monzogabbro body with a saucer-shape geometry emplaced in organic-rich sedimentary layers. The monzogabbro contains miarolitic cavities and ophitic textures which, together with decompaction of its overburdened sedimentary strata, suggest an emplacement depth around 950 m below the paleo-seafloor. Seismic lines show an array of faults at the tips of the saucer-shaped monzogabbro. These faults are connected with the root of some volcanoes and may have formed feeder systems for eruptions and hydrothermal fluids onto the Miocene paleo-seafloor. Volcaniclastic rocks comprise abundant glassy shards, relics of bubble walls, spheroidal fragments enveloped in a palagonite film, broken phenocrysts, and lithics. These volcaniclastic rocks are interbedded with lower bathyal siltstones, indicating that eruptions near the location of the Resolution-1 occurred in a deep-submarine environment (1000–1500 m). Integration of petrographic, geochemical, and seismic reflection interpretation suggest that the volcaniclastic rocks have a genetic relationship with the saucer-shaped monzogabbro, which may have served as a shallow stationary magma chamber for some volcanoes in the MVF. The available data indicate processes of intense material fragmentation and particle dispersion, consistent with phreatomagmatic eruptions, although globally this eruptive style is rarely interpreted to occur at water depths > 1000 m. The emplacement of intrusions into organic-rich sedimentary rocks could incorporate thermogenic gases into the magmatic system, providing supplementary driving forces to form large deep-water pyroclastic eruptions.

Keywords

Buried volcanoes Seismic reflection Deep-water eruptions 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank IHS Markit and Schlumberger for providing academic license to use the Kingdom and Petrel software, and the NZPM for providing the dataset for this study. Thanks to Jane Newman for the petrographic insights, to Simon Holford and Sverre Planke for their excellent reviews of the manuscript, and to Judy Fierstein for helping to improve this paper.

Supplementary material

445_2019_1316_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
ESM 1 XRF results from Rock Association I (intrusive) and Rock Association V (extrusive) of Resolution-1. Sn correspond to the number of shots given in each sample. Major elements are presented in weight percent (wt%), while incompatible elements are in parts per million (ppm). (DOCX 13 kb)
445_2019_1316_Fig16_ESM.png (1.5 mb)
ESM 2

Results from EDS analysis of volcanic glass from Rock Association V. (PNG 1505 kb)

445_2019_1316_MOESM2_ESM.tif (37.3 mb)
High Resolution Image (TIF 38162 kb)

References

  1. Aarnes I, Planke S, Trulsvik M, Svensen H (2015) Contact metamorphism and thermogenic gas generation in the Vøring and Møre basins, offshore Norway, during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. J Geol Soc 172:588–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agirrezabala L, Sarrionandia F, Carracedo M (2017) Diatreme-forming volcanism in a deep-water faulted basin margin: Lower Cretaceous outcrops from the Basque-Cantabrian Basin, western Pyrenees. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 337:124–139.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.03.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnórsson S, Thórhallsson S, Stefánsson A (2015) Utilization of geothermal resources. In: The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385938-9.00071-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barrier A (2019) Tectonics, sedimentation and magmatism of the Canterbury Basin, New Zealand. Ph.D. Thesis, Canterbury University, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  5. Barrier A, Nicol A, Bischoff AP (2017) Volcanism occurrences in the Canterbury Basin, New Zealand and implication for petroleum exploration. In AAPG GTW Influence of Volcanism and Associated Magmatic Processes on Petroleum Systems. Conference, Oamaru New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  6. Best MG, Christiansen EH (1997) Origin of broken phenocrysts in ash-flow tuffs. Geol Soc Am Bull 109:63–73.  https://doi.org/10.1130/00167606(1997)109<0063:OOBPIA>2.3.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bischoff AP (2019) Architectural elements of buried volcanic systems and their impact on geoenergy resources. Ph.D. Thesis, Canterbury University, New Zealand. http://hdl.handle.net/10092/16730
  8. Bischoff AP, Nicol A, Barrier A, Beggs M (2016) The stratigraphic record of volcanism - examples from New Zealand sedimentary basins. In 2016 Geoscience Society of New Zealand Conference, Wanaka, AbstractGoogle Scholar
  9. Bischoff AP, Nicol A, Beggs M (2017) Stratigraphy of architectural elements in a buried volcanic system and implications for hydrocarbon exploration: interpretation.  https://doi.org/10.1190/INT-2016-0201.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bischoff AP, Nicol A, Barrier A, Wang H (2019a) Paleogeography and volcanic morphology reconstruction of a buried monogenetic volcanic Field (part 2). This edition of the Bulletin of VolcanologyGoogle Scholar
  11. Bischoff AP, Nicol A, Cole J, Gravley D (2019b) Stratigraphy of architectural elements of a buried monogenetic volcanic system and implications for geoenergy exploration. Online pre-print in EarthArXiv. Submitted to the Open Geosci.  https://doi.org/10.31223/osf.io/h9zuq
  12. Blanke SJ (2010) “Saucer sills” of the offshore Canterbury Basin: GNS publication.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0094306114545742f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Browne GH (1983) A new interpretation of brecciation in the Sandpit Tuff, Harper Hills, Canterbury. N Z J Geol Geophys 26:429–434.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.1983.10422258 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carlson JR, Grant-Mackie JA, Rodgers KA (1980) Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Coalgate area, Canterbury, New Zealand. N Z J Geol Geop 23:179–192.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.1980.10424205 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cas RA, Giordano FG (2014) Submarine volcanism: a review of the constraints, processes and products, and relevance to the Cabo de Gata volcanic succession.  https://doi.org/10.3301/IJG.2014.46 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cas R, Simmons J (2018) Why Deep-Water Eruptions Are So Different From Subaerial Eruptions. Front Earth Sci 6:198.  https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2018.00198
  17. Cas RA, Wright FJV (1993) Volcanic successions: modern and ancient - a geological approach to processes, products and successions. Chapman and Hall, UK.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-412-44640-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Catuneanu O (2006) Principles of sequence stratigraphy. Changes 375:44-4462.  https://doi.org/10.5860/CHOICE.44-4462 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coombs DS, White AJR, Hamilton D, Couper RA (1960) Age relations of the Dunedin volcanic complex and some paleogeographic implications—Part II. N Z J Geol Geop.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.1960.10420145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Coombs DS, Cas RA, Kawachi Y, Landis CA, McDonough WF, Reay A (1986) Cenozoic volcanism in north, east and central Otago. In: Smith IEM (ed) Late Cenozoic volcanism in New Zealand, R Soc new zeal bull, vol 23, pp 278–312Google Scholar
  21. Delmelle P, Maters E, Oppenheimer C (2015) Volcanic influences on the carbon, sulfur, and halogen biogeochemical cycles. In: Sigurdsson H, Houghton B, McNutt S, Rymer H, Stix J (eds) Encyclopedia of volcanoes. Academic Press, New York.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385938-9.00050-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eady AE (1995) The Petrology and Geochemistry of the Acheron Intrusion. MSc Thesis, Canterbury University pp 183. http://hdl.handle.net/10092/6783
  23. Field BD, Browne GH, Davy BW, Herzer RH, Hoskins RH, Raine JI, Wilson GJ, Sewell RJ, Smale D, Watters WA (1989) Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary basins and geological evolution of the Canterbury region, South Island, New Zealand. Lower Hutt: New Zealand Geological Survey. N Z Geol Survey Basin Stud 2:94Google Scholar
  24. Finn CA, Müller RD, Panter KS (2005) A Cenozoic diffuse alkaline magmatic province (DAMP) in the southwest Pacific without rift or plume origin. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 6.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GC000723
  25. Forsyth PJ, Barrell DJA, Jongens R (2008) Geology of the Christchurch area. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences 1:250,000 Geological Map 16. Lower Hutt, GNS Science. 67 p1 sheetGoogle Scholar
  26. Giba M, Walsh JJ, Nicol A, Mouslopoulou V, Seebeck H (2013) Investigation of the Spatio-temporal relationship between Normal faulting and arc volcanism on million-year time scales. J Geol Soc 170:951–962.  https://doi.org/10.1144/jgs2012-121 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Graettinger AH, Valentine GA, Sonder I (2016) Recycling in debris-filled volcanic vents. Geology 44:811–814.  https://doi.org/10.1130/G38081.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hawkes PW, Mound DD (1984) BP Shell Todd (Canterbury) Services Limited, Clipper-1 Geological Completion Report PR1036Google Scholar
  29. Herzer RH (1995) Seismic Stratigraphy of a Buried Volcanic Arc, Northland, New Zealand and Implications for Neogene Subduction. Mar Pet Geol 12(5):511–531.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0264-8172(95)91506-K CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Holford SP, Schofield N, MacDonald JD, Duddy IR, Green PF (2012) Seismic analysis of igneous systems in sedimentary basins and their impacts on hydrocarbon prospectivity: examples from the southern Australian margin. APPEA J 52:229–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huafeng T, Phiri C, Youfeng G, Yulong H, Weihua B (2015) Types and characteristics of Volcanostratigraphic boundaries and their oil-gas reservoir significance. Acta Geol Sin 89:163–174.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1755-6724.12402 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hunt D, Tucker ME (1992) Stranded parasequences and the forced regressive wedge systems tract: deposition during base-level fall. Sediment Geol 81:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0037-0738(92)90052-S CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Iacono-Marziano G, Morizet Y, Le Trong E, Gaillard F (2013) New experimental data and semi-empirical parameterization of H2O-CO2 solubility in mafic melts. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 97:145–157Google Scholar
  34. Infante-Paez L, Marfurt KJ (2017) Seismic expression and geomorphology of igneous bodies: A Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, case study: Interpretation, 5, no. 3, p. SK121-SK140,  https://doi.org/10.1190/INT-2016-0244.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jerram DA, Single RT, Hobbs RW, Nelson CE (2009) Understanding the offshore flood basalt sequence using onshore volcanic facies analogues: an example from the Faroe-Shetland basin. Geol Mag 146:353–367.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756809005974 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kamp PJJ, Green PF, Tippett JM (1992) Tectonic architecture of the mountain front-foreland basin transition, South Island, New Zealand, assessed by fission track analysis. Tectonics. 11:98–113.  https://doi.org/10.1029/91TC02362 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kereszturi G, Németh C (2013) Monogenetic basaltic volcanoes: genetic classification growth, geomorphology and degradation:, Updates in Volcanology - New Advances in Understanding Volcanic Systems,  https://doi.org/10.5772/51387 Google Scholar
  38. Lever H (2007) Review of unconformities in the late Eocene to early Miocene successions of the South Island, New Zealand: ages, correlations, and causes. N Z J Geol Geophys 50:245–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lorenz V (1985) Maars and diatremes of phreatomagmatic origin, a review. Trans Geol Soc S Afr 88:459–470Google Scholar
  40. Lu H, Fulthorpe CS, Mann P, Kominz MA (2005) Miocene-recent tectonic and climatic controls on sediment supply and sequence stratigraphy: Canterbury basin. N Z Basin Res 17:311–328.  https://doi.org/10.5772/5138710.1111/j.1365-2117.2005.00266.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Magee C, Murray H, Christopher JAL, Stephen JM (2019) Burial-related compaction modifies intrusion-induced forced folds: implications for reconciling roof uplift mechanisms using seismic reflection data. Front Earth Sci 7.  https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2019.00037
  42. Marfurt K (2018) Seismic attributes as the framework for data integration throughout the oilfield life cycle: Society of Exploration Geophysicists pp 508.  https://doi.org/10.1190/1.9781560803522
  43. McLean CE, Schofield N, Brown DJ, Jolley DW, Reid A (2017) 3D seismic imaging of the shallow plumbing system beneath the Ben Nevis Monogenetic Volcanic Field: Faroe–Shetland Basin. J Geol Soc.  https://doi.org/10.1144/jgs2016-118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McPhie J, Doyle M, Allen R (1993) Volcanic textures - a guide to the interpretation of textures in volcanic rocks. Centre for Ore Deposit and Exploration Studies, University of TasmaniaGoogle Scholar
  45. Milne AD (1975) Well completion report Resolution, for BP, Shell, Todd Canterbury Service Limited. New Zealand Geological Survey Open-file Petroleum Report No. 648Google Scholar
  46. Mortimer N (2004) New Zealand's Geological Foundations. Gondwana Res 7(1):261–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pearce TH (1993) Analcime phenocrysts in igneous rocks: primary or secondary? Discussion. Am Mineral 78:225–229Google Scholar
  48. Pearce JA (1996) A users guide to basalt discrimination diagrams. In: Wyman DA (eds). Trace element geochemistry of volcanic rocks: applications for massive sulphide exploration. Short Course Notes 12. St. John’s, Canada: Geological Association of Canada, pp 79–113Google Scholar
  49. Peretyazhko IS (2010) Genesis of mineralized cavities (Miaroles) in granitic pegmatites and granites. Petrol. 18:183–208.  https://doi.org/10.1134/S0869591110020062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Planke S, Alvestad E, Eldholm O (1999) Seismic characteristics of basaltic extrusive and intrusive rocks. Lead Edge 18:342–348.  https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1438289 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Planke S, Symonds PA, Alvestad E, Skogseid J (2000) Seismic volcanostratigraphy of large-volume basaltic extrusive complexes on rifted margins. J Geophys Res 105(B8):19335–19351.  https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JB900005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Planke S, Millett JM, Maharjan D, Jerram DA, Abdelmalak MM, Groth A, Hoffmann J, Berndt C, Myklebust R (2017) Igneous seismic geomorphology of buried lava fields and coastal escarpments on the Vøring volcanic rifted margin: Interpretation.  https://doi.org/10.1190/INT-2016-0164.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Raine JI, Beu AG, Boyes AF, Campbell HJ, Cooper RA, Crampton JS, Crundwell MP, Hollis CJ, Morgans HEG, Mortimer N (2015) New Zealand Geological Timescale NZGT 2015/1: N Z J Geol Geophys 58(4):398–403.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.2015.1086391 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Reynolds P, Schofield N, Brown RJ, Holford SP (2016) The architecture of submarine monogenetic volcanoes - insights from 3D seismic data. Basin Res 4:437–451.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bre.12230 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Robertson J, Ripley EM, Barnes SJ, Li C (2015) Sulfur liberation from country rocks and incorporation in mafic magmas. Econ Geol.  https://doi.org/10.2113/econgeo.110.4.1111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schiøler P, Raine JI, Griffin A, Hollis CJ, Kulhanek DK, Morgans HEG, Roncaglia L, Strong CP, Uruski C (2011) Revised biostratigraphy and well correlation, Canterbury Basin, New Zealand. GNS Science Consultancy Report 2011/12. 142 pGoogle Scholar
  57. Schofield N, Jerram DA, Holford S, Stuart A, Niall M, Hartley A, Howell J, David M, Green P, Hutton D, Stevenson C (2016) Sills in sedimentary basin and petroleum systems: In Németh K (ed) The series advances in volcanology, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  58. Sewell RJ (1988) Late Miocene volcanic stratigraphy of central banks peninsula, Canterbury, New Zealand pp 41–64.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.1988.10417809 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Single RT, Jerram DA (2004) The 3-D facies architecture of flood basalt provinces and their internal heterogeneity: examples from the Palaeogene Skye lava Field. J Geol Soc 161:911–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Smith KL, Milnes AR, Eggleton RA (1987) Weathering of basalt: formation of iddingsite. Clay Clay Miner 35:418–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Strogen DP, Seebeck H, Nicol A, King PR (2017) Two-phase Cretaceous–Paleocene rifting in the Taranaki Basin region, New Zealand; implications for Gondwana break-up. J Geol Soc 174:929–946.  https://doi.org/10.1144/jgs2016-160 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Stroncik NA, Schmincke HU (2002) Palagonite - a review. Int J Earth Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-001-0238-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Suggate RP, Stevens GR, Te Punga MT (1978) The geology of New Zealand. Govt Printer, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  64. Svensen HH, Planke S, Malthe-Sørenssen A, Jamtveit B, Myklebust R, Eidem T, Rey SS (2004) Release of methane from a volcanic basin as a mechanism for initial Eocene global warming. Nature 429:542–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Svensen HH, Planke S, Neumann ER, Aarnes I, Marsh JS, Polteau S, Harstad C, Chevallier L (2018) Sub-volcanic intrusions and the link to global climatic and environmental changes. In: Breitkreuz C, Rocchi S (eds) Physical geology of shallow magmatic systems, Advances in Volcanology. Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-14084-1_10 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Timm C, Hoernle K, Werner R, Hauff F, van den Bogaard P, White J, Mortimer N, Garbe-Schönberg D (2010) Temporal and geochemical evolution of the Cenozoic intraplate volcanism of Zealandia.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2009.10.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Walker F (1957) Ophitic texture and basaltic crystallization. J Geol 65:1–14 http://www.jstor.org/stable/30064199 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Walker GPL, Croasdale R (1971) Characteristics of some basaltic pyroclastics. Bull Volcanol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02596957 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. White JDL (2000) Subaqueous eruption-fed density currents and their deposits: Precambrian res 101: 87–109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-9268(99)00096-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. White JDL, Ross PS (2011) Maar-diatreme volcanoes: A review.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2011.01.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. White JDL, Valentine GA (2016) Magmatic versus phreatomagmatic fragmentation: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. Geosphere 12:1478–1488.  https://doi.org/10.1130/GES01337.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zimanowski B, Büttner R, Lorenz V, Häfele HG (1997) Fragmentation of basaltic melt in the course of explosive volcanism. J Geophys Res Sol Earth 102:803–814.  https://doi.org/10.1029/96JB02935 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Association of Volcanology & Chemistry of the Earth's Interior 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of CanterburyChristchurchNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations