Advertisement

Bulletin of Volcanology

, 81:26 | Cite as

Transition zone between the upper diatreme and lower diatreme: origin and significance at Round Butte, Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Navajo Nation, Arizona

  • Benjamin LatutrieEmail author
  • Pierre-Simon Ross
Research Article
  • 135 Downloads

Abstract

Round Butte is a small but complex Miocene diatreme that crops out ~ 190 m below the pre-eruptive surface, in the southeastern part of the Hopi Buttes volcanic field. Erosional remnants consist of a diatreme 170–190 m in diameter, of which the central 130–150 m is well-exposed in a massif featuring 20–30-m-high sub-vertical cliffs, and a 50-cm-thick basanite dike. Field mapping allowed us to define three main groups of pyroclastic rocks in the diatreme: undisturbed beds, disturbed beds, and non-bedded rocks. Pyroclastic rocks range in grain size from coarse tuff to tuff breccia and in componentry from juvenile-rich to lithic-rich, with a dominance of heterolithic lapilli tuffs. Rocks from the undisturbed bedded pyroclastic group are present above an unconformity found all around the massif, whereas the disturbed bedded and the non-bedded pyroclastic groups are always found below it. This unconformity was previously understood as the contact between the upper and the lower diatremes. The undisturbed beds above the unconformity indeed compose the upper diatreme, but the assemblage of non-bedded rocks (invasive columns) and disturbed beds (residual columns) below it is not typical of the lower diatreme. Instead, they represent a transition zone between the upper and lower diatremes. Such a transition zone also occurs in other diatremes, it is important genetically, and we propose to add it to the general model of maar-diatreme volcanoes.

Keywords

Maar-diatreme Crater Upper diatreme Lower diatreme Transition zone 

Notes

Acknowledgments

James D.L. White did the early work on Round Butte, introduced Pierre-Simon Ross to this fascinating volcano, and read a draft of the manuscript. Pier Paolo Comida helped us in the field. We thank the Morris family for allowing us to work at Round Butte. Any persons wishing to conduct geological investigations on the Navajo Nation must first apply for, and receive, a permit from the Navajo Nation Minerals Department, P.O. Box 1910, Window Rock, Arizona 86515, USA, telephone 1-928-871-6587. We thank Alison H. Graettinger and an anonymous reviewer for their constructive reviews, and editor Jacopo Taddeucci for his suggestions.

Supplementary material

445_2019_1285_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 1070 kb)
445_2019_1285_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (587 kb)
ESM 2 (PDF 587 kb)

References

  1. Austin-Erickson A, Ort MH, Carrasco-Núñez G (2011) Rhyolitic phreatomagmatism explored: Tepexitl tuff ring (Eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 201:325–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bélanger C, Ross P-S (2018) Origin of nonbedded pyroclastic rocks in the Cathedral Cliff diatreme, Navajo volcanic field, New Mexico. Bull Volcanol 80:61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Billingsley GH, Block D, Hiza-Redsteer M (2013) Geologic map of the Winslow 30′ × 60′ quadrangle, Coconino and Navajo counties, northern Arizona. US Geological Survey Scientific Investigations, Map 3247, scale 1:50 000Google Scholar
  4. Clement CR (1982) A comparative geological study of some major kimberlite pipes in the Northern Cape and Orange Free State. PhD thesis, University of Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  5. Delpit S, Ross P-S, Hearn BC (2014) Deep-bedded ultramafic diatremes in the Missouri River Breaks volcanic field, Montana, USA: 1 km of syn-eruptive subsidence. Bull Volcanol 76:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fisher RV, Schmincke H-U (1984) Pyroclastic rocks. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Furnes H (1975) Experimental palagonitization of basaltic glasses of varied composition. Contrib Mineral Petrol 50:105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gernon TM, Gilbertson MA, Sparks RSJ, Field M (2008) Gas-fluidisation in an experimental tapered bed: insights into processes in diverging volcanic conduits. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 174:49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gernon T, Upton B, Hincks T (2013) Eruptive history of an alkali basaltic diatreme from Elie Ness, Fife, Scotland. Bull Volcanol 75:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gilbert H, Velasco AA, Zandt G (2007) Preservation of Proterozoic terrane boundaries within the Colorado Plateau and implications for its tectonic evolution. Earth Planet Sci Lett 258:237–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Graettinger A (2018) Trends in maar crater size and shape using the global Maar Volcano Location and Shape (MaarVLS) database. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 357:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Graettinger AH, Valentine GA, Sonder I, Ross P-S, White JDL (2015) Facies distribution of ejecta in analog tephra rings from experiments with single and multiple subsurface explosions. Bull Volcanol 77:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hack JT (1942) Sedimentation and volcanism in the Hopi Buttes, Arizona. Geol Soc Am Bull 53:335–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hart RJ, Ward JJ, Bills DJ, Flynn ME (2002) Generalized hydrogeology and ground-water budget for the C aquifer, Little Colorado River Basin and parts of the Verde and Salt River Basins, Arizona and New Mexico. US Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report: 02–4026, 54Google Scholar
  15. Hooten JA (1999) Phreatomagmatic diatremes of the western Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Navajo Nation, Arizona. Msc thesis, University of Northern ArizonaGoogle Scholar
  16. Hooten J, Ort M (2002) Peperite as a record of early-stage phreatomagmatic fragmentation processes: an example from the Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Navajo Nation, Arizona, USA. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 114:95–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Houghton B, Wilson C (1989) A vesicularity index for pyroclastic deposits. Bull Volcanol 51:451–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kienle J, Kyle PR, Self S, Motyka RJ, Lorenz V (1980) Ukinrek Maars, Alaska, I. April 1977 eruption sequence, petrology and tectonic setting. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 7:11–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kurszlaukis S, Büttner R, Zimanowski B, Lorenz V (1998) On the first experimental phreatomagmatic explosion of a kimberlite melt. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 80:323–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kurszlaukis S, Mahotkin I, Rotman A, Kolesnikov G, Makovchuk I (2009) Syn-and post-eruptive volcanic processes in the Yubileinaya kimberlite pipe, Yakutia, Russia, and implications for the emplacement of South African-style kimberlite pipes. Lithos 112:579–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Le Corvec N, Muirhead JD, White JDL (2018) Shallow magma diversions during explosive diatreme-forming eruptions. Nat Commun 9:1459–1459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lefebvre NS (2013) Volcanology of maar-diatreme volcanic vent complexes, Hopi Buttes Volcanic Field, Navajo Nation, Arizona, USA. PhD thesis, University of OtagoGoogle Scholar
  23. Lefebvre N, White JDL, Kjarsgaard B (2013) Unbedded diatreme deposits reveal maar-diatreme-forming eruptive processes: Standing Rocks West, Hopi Buttes, Navajo Nation, USA. Bull Volcanol 75:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lefebvre NS, White JDL, Kjarsgaard BA (2016) Arrested diatreme development: Standing Rocks East, Hopi Buttes, Navajo Nation, USA. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 310:186–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lorenz V (1986) On the growth of maars and diatremes and its relevance to the formation of tuff rings. Bull Volcanol 48:265–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lorenz V (2003) Maar-diatreme volcanoes, their formation, and their setting in hard-rock or soft-rock environments. Geolines 15:72–83Google Scholar
  27. Lorenz V (2007) Syn-and posteruptive hazards of maar–diatreme volcanoes. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 159:285–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lorenz V, Kurszlaukis S (2007) Root zone processes in the phreatomagmatic pipe emplacement model and consequences for the evolution of maar–diatreme volcanoes. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 159:4–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moore J (1967) Base surge in recent volcanic eruptions. Bull Volcanol 30:337–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Muirhead JD, Van Eaton AR, Re G, White JDL, Ort MH (2016) Monogenetic volcanoes fed by interconnected dikes and sills in the Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Navajo Nation, USA. Bull Volcanol 78:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ort MH, Carrasco-Núñez G (2009) Lateral vent migration during phreatomagmatic and magmatic eruptions at Tecuitlapa Maar, east-central Mexico. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 181:67–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ort MH, Lefebvre NS, Neal CA, McConnell VS, Wohletz KH (2018) Linking the Ukinrek 1977 maar-eruption observations to the tephra deposits: new insights into maar depositional processes. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 360:36–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Porritt L, Cas R, Crawford B (2008) In-vent column collapse as an alternative model for massive volcaniclastic kimberlite emplacement: an example from the Fox kimberlite, Ekati Diamond Mine, NWT, Canada. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 174:90–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Re G, White JDL, Ort M (2015) Dikes, sills, and stress-regime evolution during emplacement of the Jagged Rocks complex, Hopi Buttes Volcanic field, Navajo Nation, USA. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 295:65–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Re G, White JDL, Muirhead JD, Ort MH (2016) Subterranean fragmentation of magma during conduit initiation and evolution in the shallow plumbing system of the small-volume Jagged Rocks volcanoes (Hopi Buttes Volcanic Field, Arizona, USA). Bull Volcanol 78:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ripepe M, Delle Donne D, Harris A, Marchetti E, Ulivieri G (2008) Dynamics of Strombolian activity. In: Calvari S, Inguaggiato S, Puglisi G, Ripepe M, Rosi M (eds) The Stromboli Volcano: an integrated study of the 2002–2003 eruption, American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph 182:39–48Google Scholar
  37. Ross P-S, White JDL (2006) Debris jets in continental phreatomagmatic volcanoes: a field study of their subterranean deposits in the Coombs Hills vent complex, Antarctica. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 149:62–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ross P-S, White JDL, McClintock M (2008a) Geological evolution of the Coombs–Allan Hills area, Ferrar large igneous province, Antarctica: debris avalanches, mafic pyroclastic density currents, phreatocauldrons. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 172:38–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ross P-S, White JDL, Zimanowski B, Büttner R (2008b) Multiphase flow above explosion sites in debris-filled volcanic vents: insights from analogue experiments. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 178:104–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ross P-S, White JDL, Zimanowski B, Büttner R (2008c) Rapid injection of particles and gas into non-fluidized granular material, and some volcanological implications. Bull Volcanol 70:1151–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ross P-S, White JDL, Valentine GA, Taddeucci J, Sonder I, Andrews RG (2013) Experimental birth of a maar–diatreme volcano. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 260:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ross P-S, Núñez GC, Hayman P (2017) Felsic maar-diatreme volcanoes: a review. Bull Volcanol 79:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Self S, Kienle J, Huot J-P (1980) Ukinrek Maars, Alaska, II. Deposits and formation of the 1977 craters. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 7:39–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sohn YK (1996) Hydrovolcanic processes forming basaltic tuff rings and cones on Cheju Island, Korea. Geol Soc Am Bull 108:1199–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sohn YK, Chough SK (1989) Depositional processes of the Suwolbong tuff ring, Cheju Island (Korea). Sedimentology 36:837–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Stroncik NA, Schmincke H-U (2002) Palagonite–a review. Int J Earth Sci 91:680–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Taddeucci J, Valentine GA, Sonder I, White JDL, Ross P-S, Scarlato P (2013) The effect of pre-existing craters on the initial development of explosive volcanic eruptions: an experimental investigation. Geophys Res Lett 40:507–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thomas APW (1888) Report on the eruption of Tarawera and Rotomahana, New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  49. Valentine GA, White JDL (2012) Revised conceptual model for maar-diatremes: subsurface processes, energetics, and eruptive products. Geology 40:1111–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Valentine GA, White JDL, Ross P-S, Amin J, Taddeucci J, Sonder I, Johnson PJ (2012) Experimental craters formed by single and multiple buried explosions and implications for volcanic craters with emphasis on maars. Geophys Res Lett 39:L20301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Valentine GA, Graettinger AH, Sonder I (2014) Explosion depths for phreatomagmatic eruptions. Geophys Res Lett 41:3045–3051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Valentine GA, Sottili G, Palladino DM, Taddeucci J (2015) Tephra ring interpretation in light of evolving maar–diatreme concepts: Stracciacappa maar (Central Italy). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 308:19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. van Otterloo J, Ort MH, Cruden AR (2018) Unique occurrence of a folded in-vent dike: new insights on magma-water mixing. Geology 46:379–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Vazquez JA (1998) Maar volcanism in the Wood Chop Mesa area, Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Navajo Nation, Arizona. Msc thesis, University of Northern ArizonaGoogle Scholar
  55. Vazquez JA, Ort MH (2006) Facies variation of eruption units produced by the passage of single pyroclastic surge currents, Hopi Buttes volcanic field, USA. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 154:222–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. White JDL (1989) Basic elements of maar-crater deposits in the Hopi Buttes volcanic field, northeastern Arizona, USA. J Geol 97:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. White JDL (1990) Depositional architecture of a maar-pitted playa: sedimentation in the Hopi Buttes volcanic field, northeastern Arizona, USA. Sediment Geol 67:55–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. White JDL (1991) Maar-diatreme phreatomagmatism at Hopi Buttes, Navajo Nation (Arizona), USA. Bull Volcanol 53:239–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. White JDL (1996) Impure coolants and interaction dynamics of phreatomagmatic eruptions. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 74:155–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. White JDL, McClintock M (2001) Immense vent complex marks flood-basalt eruption in a wet, failed rift: Coombs Hills, Antarctica. Geology 29:935–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. White JDL, Houghton B (2006) Primary volcaniclastic rocks. Geology 34:677–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. White JDL, Ross P-S (2011) Maar-diatreme volcanoes: a review. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 201:1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. White JDL, Houghton B (2015) Surtseyan and related phreatomagmatic eruptions. In: Sigurdsson H, Houghton B, McNutt SR, Rymer H, Stix J (eds) Encyclopedia of Volcanoes. Elsevier second edition 495-511Google Scholar
  64. Williams H (1936) Pliocene volcanoes of the Navajo-Hopi country. Geol Soc Am Bull 47:111–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zimanowski B, Büttner R, Lorenz V, Häfele HG (1997) Fragmentation of basaltic melt in the course of explosive volcanism. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 102:803–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Association of Volcanology & Chemistry of the Earth's Interior 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre Eau Terre EnvironnementInstitut national de la recherche scientifiqueQuébecCanada

Personalised recommendations