Bulletin of Volcanology

, 80:75 | Cite as

Magmatic reactivation of the Campi Flegrei volcanic system: insights from the Baia–Fondi di Baia eruption

  • Marija Voloschina
  • Marco PistolesiEmail author
  • Antonella Bertagnini
  • Nicole Métrich
  • Massimo Pompilio
  • Alessio Di Roberto
  • Sara Di Salvo
  • Lorella Francalanci
  • Roberto Isaia
  • Raffaello Cioni
  • Claudia Romano
Research Article


The Baia–Fondi di Baia was a multi-stage, small-scale eruption which occurred in the western part of the Campi Flegrei caldera at 9525–9696 BP, marking the onset of Epoch 2 of post-Neapolitan Yellow Tuff volcanism. The eruption was characterized by a complex series of events related to two distinct eruptive episodes (Baia and Fondi di Baia) separated by a short time interval, and each characterized by several eruptive phases. Mineralogical, geochemical (major, and trace elements on whole rocks, major and volatile elements on matrix glasses, and melt inclusions), and Sr isotope characterization of the tephra material sampled along the entire sequence was carried out in order to constrain magmatic evolution and dynamics of the feeding system. Three main compositional groups were identified in matrix glasses and interpreted as representative of different magma bodies: (i) a trachyte (SiO2 60.3–64.7 wt.%), which is volumetrically predominant; (ii) a tephriphonolite-latite (SiO2: 55.1–57.9 wt.%); and (iii) an intermediate magma group between phonolite and trachyte compositions. This wide compositional heterogeneity contrasts with the narrow variability recognized in the bulk-rock compositions, which are all trachytic. Mineral, melt inclusions, and Sr isotope data suggest that the trachytic magma possibly derived from the Campanian Ignimbrite reservoir located at 6–9 km depth. Volatile content in matrix glass indicates a storage depth of at least 6 km for the tephriphonolite-latitic magma. The intermediate magma is interpreted as being derived from a remelting and assimilation process of a partially crystallized trachytic body (crystal mush) by the hotter tephriphonolite-latitic magma. As the tephriphonolite-latite was erupted together with the trachyte from the beginning of the eruption, we suggest that the ascent of this magma played a fundamental role in triggering the eruption. Upwards through the tephra sequence, we observed a progressive increase of the tephriphonolite-latitic and intermediate phonolite-trachytic components. The presence of banded clasts characterized by different compositions is also indicative of syn-eruptive mingling during the final phases of the eruption.


Phlegrean fields Geochemistry Matrix glass Melt inclusions Isotopic composition 



We thank S. Campagnola for micro-Raman analyses and D. Mazzarella for having provided access to his private properties. We also thank J. Martì and an anonymous reviewer for their constructive comments and C. Bonadonna for editorial handling.

Funding information

This study was funded by the “Project V1: Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis” in the framework of the agreement between Dipartimento di Protezione Civile and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (Research Unit UNIFI, responsible M. Pistolesi) and by the project "PRA 2018 (Progetti di Ricerca di Ateneo)" of University of Pisa.

Supplementary material

445_2018_1247_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (116 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 116 kb)
445_2018_1247_MOESM2_ESM.png (777 kb)
Figure S1 (a) K2O vs SiO2 and (b) CaO vs MgO plots showing comparison between SEM-EDS and EMPA data. (PNG 777 kb)
445_2018_1247_Fig13_ESM.png (147 kb)
Figure S2

Diagram of Sr versus CaO with the variability fields for matrix glasses and bulk rocks of the Phlegrean Fields. Data from Georoc database have been plotted after review and improvement. Legend: Post-NYT, post-Neapolitan Yellow Tuff; NYT, Neapolitan Yellow Tuff; Post-CI and pre-NYT, volcanic activity between Neapolitan Yellow Tuff and Campanian Ignimbrite; CI, Campanian Ignimbrite; Pre-CI, pre-Campanian Ignimbrite activity. (PNG 146 kb)

445_2018_1247_MOESM3_ESM.tif (11.6 mb)
High resolution image (TIF 11857 kb)
445_2018_1247_Fig14_ESM.png (140 kb)
Figure S3

Diagram of 87Sr/86Sr versus CaO with the variability fields for matrix glasses and bulk rocks at Campi Flegrei. Data from Georoc database have been plotted after careful review. Legend: Post-NYT, post-Neapolitan Yellow Tuff; NYT, Neapolitan Yellow Tuff; Post-CI and pre-NYT, volcanic activity between Neapolitan Yellow Tuff and Campanian Ignimbrite; CI, Campanian Ignimbrite; Pre-CI, pre-Campanian Ignimbrite activity. Baia and Fondi di Baia data from this work are also reported for comparison. (PNG 140 kb)

445_2018_1247_MOESM4_ESM.tif (10.7 mb)
High resolution image (TIF 10926 kb)
445_2018_1247_MOESM5_ESM.xlsx (12 kb)
Table S1 Whole-rock data (major and trace elements) for both Baia and Fondi di Baia samples. (XLSX 12 kb)
445_2018_1247_MOESM6_ESM.xlsx (76 kb)
Table S2 SEM-EDS matrix glass analyses for both Baia and Fondi di Baia samples on anhydrous base. Totals (not recalculated) are also shown. (XLSX 76 kb)
445_2018_1247_MOESM7_ESM.xlsx (15 kb)
Table S3 Sr-isotope compositions and SEM-EDS major element analyses (wt.%) of Baia and Fondi di Baia matrix glasses. (XLSX 14 kb)
445_2018_1247_MOESM8_ESM.xlsx (17 kb)
Table S4 EMPA major element compositions (wt.%) of tephra clasts from Baia and Fondi di Baia matrix glasses used for 87Sr/86Sr analyses. (XLSX 16 kb)
445_2018_1247_MOESM9_ESM.txt (63 kb)
Table S5 Dataset produced with Rhyolite-MELTS simulation of crystal fractionation process of melt batch A. (TXT 62 kb)
445_2018_1247_MOESM10_ESM.txt (32 kb)
Table S6 Dataset produced with Rhyolite-MELTS simulation of crystal fractionation process of melt batch B. (TXT 32 kb)
445_2018_1247_MOESM11_ESM.txt (38 kb)
Table S7 Dataset produced with Rhyolite-MELTS simulation of crystal fractionation process of melt batch C. (TXT 37 kb)
445_2018_1247_MOESM12_ESM.txt (303 kb)
Table S8 Dataset produced with Rhyolite-MELTS simulation of assimilation process of melt batches A and B. (TXT 303 kb)
445_2018_1247_MOESM13_ESM.xlsx (34 kb)
Table S9 Calculations of limestone contamination of a melt batch A to match B and C compositions. (XLSX 34 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marija Voloschina
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marco Pistolesi
    • 2
    Email author
  • Antonella Bertagnini
    • 3
  • Nicole Métrich
    • 4
  • Massimo Pompilio
    • 3
  • Alessio Di Roberto
    • 3
  • Sara Di Salvo
    • 5
  • Lorella Francalanci
    • 5
  • Roberto Isaia
    • 6
  • Raffaello Cioni
    • 5
  • Claudia Romano
    • 7
  1. 1.School of Agriculture and Environment, Massey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze della TerraUniversità di PisaPisaItaly
  3. 3.Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e VulcanologiaSezione di PisaPisaItaly
  4. 4.Institut de Physique du Globe de ParisParisFrance
  5. 5.Dipartimento di Scienze della TerraUniversità di FirenzeFlorenceItaly
  6. 6.Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e VulcanologiaOsservatorio VesuvianoNaplesItaly
  7. 7.Dipartimento di ScienzeUniversità di Roma TreRomeItaly

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