Bulletin of Volcanology

, 80:68 | Cite as

Long-term eruptive trends from space-based thermal and SO2 emissions: a comparative analysis of Stromboli, Batu Tara and Tinakula volcanoes

  • M. LaioloEmail author
  • F. Massimetti
  • C. Cigolini
  • M. Ripepe
  • D. Coppola
Research Article


Batu Tara (Indonesia) and Tinakula (Solomon Island) are two poorly known volcanoes with morphologies and short-term eruptive activity similar to Stromboli (Italy). However, quantitative information about their long-term eruptive behaviour is limited, making the comparisons with Stromboli descriptive and based on short periods of observations. Here, we use over a decade of satellite data to measure and compare the radiant flux (2000–2017) and the SO2 mass (2004–2017) of all three volcanoes. The combined analysis of volcanic radiant power (from MODIS data) and SO2 flux (from OMI data) reveals different long-term eruptive trends and contrasting ratios of SO2/VRP. These data indicate that the eruptive mechanisms operating at each volcano are quite different. The persistent open-vent activity of Stromboli volcano is episodically interrupted by flank eruptions that drain degassed magma stored in the very shallow portion of the central conduit. In contrast, a long-lasting exponential decay of both VRP and SO2 flux observed at Batu Tara is consistent with the eruption of undegassed magma from a deep, closed magma chamber, whilst Tinakula displays multiple year-long eruptive phases, characterised by evolving gas/thermal ratios and an eruptive intensity increasing with time. Magma budget calculations for the latter volcano are consistent with eruption from a volatile-zoned magma chamber, coupled with periods of gas/magma accumulations at depth. Our results suggest that the combined analysis of satellite thermal/gas data provides a valuable tool for decrypting the long-term volcanic dynamics that could remain hidden over shorter timescales.


Stromboli twins MODIS OMI Volcanic radiative power Gas/magma balance Magma budget 



MIROVA is a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) and is supported by the Italian Civil Protection Department. We acknowledge the LANCE-MODIS system ( for providing Level 1B MODIS data. ASTER images are visible on the Geological Survey of Japan portal (; the data are courtesy of USGS and available at Analyses and visualisations used in Fig. S1 were produced with the Giovanni online data system, developed and maintained by the NASA GES DISC ( The constructive comments of three unknown reviewers have been truly appreciated. We warmly thank the Associate Editor M. R. James whose inspired suggestions contributed to greatly improving the quality of the manuscript and motivated us to publish this research.

Supplementary material

445_2018_1242_MOESM1_ESM.docx (456 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 455 kb)
445_2018_1242_MOESM2_ESM.xls (34 kb)
ESM 2 (XLS 34 kb)
445_2018_1242_MOESM3_ESM.xls (32 kb)
ESM 3 (XLS 32 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Laiolo
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • F. Massimetti
    • 1
  • C. Cigolini
    • 2
  • M. Ripepe
    • 1
  • D. Coppola
    • 2
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze della TerraUniversità di FirenzeFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze della TerraUniversità di TorinoTurinItaly

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