Associations among species traits, distribution, and demographic performance after typhoon disturbance for 22 co-occurring woody species in a mesic forest on a subtropical oceanic island
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To support conservation and restoration, it is important to understand how differences in species functional traits relate to the distribution and demographic performance (i.e., changes in rates of growth, survival and recruitment) of co-occurring endemic, indigenous, and alien species on oceanic islands, where species are especially vulnerable to invasion. We examined interspecific differences in leaf and wood traits, and their associations with species origin (endemic, indigenous, and alien), distribution patterns, and demographic performance after typhoon disturbance for 22 co-occurring woody species at Sekimon on Hahajima Island in the Ogasawara Islands. Principal components analysis showed that the first and second principal components were associated with trait variations along spectra of leaf and wood economics (LES and WES). Species origin was not significantly associated with these components. Conservative species with low resource acquisition along the LES were abundant before the typhoon but acquisitive species had higher recruitment after the typhoon. After the typhoon, acquisitive species along the WES showed higher recruitment, relative growth rates but low survival rates on soil substrates. Endemic and indigenous species had lower recruitment and relative growth rates and endemic species had lower survival rates than alien species. Alien, endemic and indigenous species have similar functional space along the LES and WES, but these functional differences do not simply explain high demographic performance of alien species after the typhoon under the conditions of the species composition shifting from endemic species to alien species after repeated typhoon disturbances.
KeywordsFunctional traits Alien species Endemic species Insular forest Tropical cyclone
We thank the staff of the National Forest Division of the Ogasawara General Office and the Ministry of the Environment for granting permission to carry out our field surveys. We also thank Yoshio Hoshi, Hiromi Umeno, and Yoshiko Kobayashi for their help in field surveys and Michio Oguro and Takuya Furukawa for their comments on statistical approaches. We acknowledge Kendi Davies and two anonymous reviewers for their comments that improved this manuscript. This study was supported by the project of the Ministry of the Environment “Global Environmental Research Coordination System” and conducted as part of “the Monitoring Sites 1000 Project” of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan.
Author contribution statement
YI conceived the project idea. TA and NT established the census plots and conducted tree census. YI, TA, and SA led data collection for traits. YI designed the analyses and analyzed the data. YI led the manuscript writing, and all co-authors contributed to editing the drafts.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interests to disclose.
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