Phototactic behavior of native Daphnia in the presence of chemical cues from a non-native predator Bythotrephes
Chemical cues are used by many taxa to communicate within and among species. Behavioral defenses induced by predator cues are a mechanism by which prey species resist or avoid predator attack. This study examined the egg bank of native Daphnia species in a lake that has been invaded by Bythotrephes longimanus, an invertebrate zooplanktivore native to northern-central Europe and Asia (initial invasion 1994, population boom in 2009). Daphnia resting eggs from both pre- and post-B. longimanus invasion lake sediments were hatched and established as isofemale clonal lines. Phototactic behavior (a proxy for vertical migration behavior) was assessed in the presence and absence of B. longimanus cue. This was done to evaluate the hypothesis that the heavy predation imposed by B. longimanus would have been selected for Daphnia clones that are more negatively phototactic in the presence of B. longimanus cue, because B. longimanus is a visual predator. The behavior of the clones derived from pre-B. longimanus era resting eggs was not significantly different from the behavior of the clones from the post-B. longimanus era and exposure to predator cue did not affect the phototactic response of the clones. There was a significant difference in the phototactic behavior of the three Daphnia species tested (Daphnia ambigua, Daphnia mendotae, and Daphnia pulicaria). These results suggest that predation by B. longimanus is not the main factor that is influencing the phototactic behavior of Daphnia in the lake. Other factors such as fish predation may be playing a more significant role in this system.
KeywordsInvasive species Inducible defenses Kairmones Vertical migration Zooplankton
We thank Jake Walsh for his assistance in the collection of sediment cores and logistical support. We thank Rachel Hartnett, Rebecca Prather, Ellen Welti, Silvia Markova, Christian Brewer, and Katherine Hooker for assisting with setup of the phototactic assays. Kevin Kiehnau provided vital assistance in the collection of zooplankton samples. We thank Claire Curry for providing advice on the statistical analyses. We thank John Shurin and three anonymous reviewers for valuable comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. This work was supported by The University of Oklahoma Department of Biology Adams Scholarship Fund. This manuscript represents a portion of ELK’s doctoral dissertation at The University of Oklahoma.
Author contribution statement
ELK conceived and designed the experiment with input from LJW. ELK conducted the fieldwork. ELK and LJW processed sediments and conducted the laboratory experiments. ELK analyzed the data and drafted the manuscript. LJW provided conceptual advice and edited the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Animal rights statement
All applicable institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
- Bates D, Kliegl R, Vasishth S, Baayen H (2015) Parsimonious mixed models. arXiv:1506.04967 (stat.ME)
- Beranek A (2012) An assessment of the long-term phenology and impact of Bythotrephes longimanus in Island Lake Reservoir, Minnesota, using sediment records. Master thesis, Department of Integrated Biosciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. http://hdl.handle.net/11299/121007
- De Meester L (1996) Evolutionary potential and local genetic differentiation in a phenotypically plastic trait of a cyclical parthenogen, Daphnia magna. Evolution 50:1293–1298. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.1996.tb02369.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dumont HJ, Miron I, D’Allasta V, Decraemer W, Claus C, Somers D (1973) Limnological aspects of some Moroccan Atlas lakes, with reference to some physical and chemical variables, the nature and distribution of the phyto- and zoo-plankton, including a note on possibilities for the development of an inland fishery. Int Rev Hydrobiol 58:33–60. https://doi.org/10.1002/iroh.19730580104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lampert W (2011) Daphnia: development of a model organism in ecology and evolution. In: Kinne O (eds) Excellence in ecology: book 21. International ecology institute, Oldendorf/Luhe, GermanyGoogle Scholar
- North Temperate Lakes Long-Term Ecological Research, NSF (2001a) North temperate lakes LTER: fish abundance 1981-current [Database]. https://lter.limnology.wisc.edu/data
- North Temperate Lakes Long-Term Ecological Research, NSF (2001b) North temperate lakes LTER: physical limnology of primary study lakes 1981-current [Database]. https://lter.limnology.wisc.edu/data
- North Temperate Lakes Long-Term Ecological Research, NSF (2001c) North temperate lakes LTER: zooplankton—Madison lakes area 1976–1994 [Database]. https://lter.limnology.wisc.edu/data
- North Temperate Lakes Long-Term Ecological Research, NSF (2001d) North temperate lakes LTER: zooplankton—Madison lakes area 1997-current [Database]. https://lter.limnology.wisc.edu/data
- R Core Team (2019) R: a language and environment for statistical computing R foundation for statistical computing, Vienna. http://www.R-project.org
- Stoks R, Govaert L, Pauwels K, Jansen B, De Meester L (2015) Resurrecting complexity: the interplay of plasticity and rapid evolution in the multiple trait response to strong changes in predation pressure in the water flea Daphnia magna. Ecol Lett 19:180–190. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12551 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Trussell GC, Nicklin MO (2002) Cue sensitivity, inducible defense, and trade-offs in a marine snail. Ecology 83:1635–1647. https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2002)083%5b1635:CSIDAT%5d2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (2018) Bureau of fisheries management. Fish stocking summary [Database]. https://dnr.wi.gov/topic/fishing/stocking/