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Enhanced ambient UVB radiation affects post-mating, but not pre-mating sexual traits in a fish

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Abstract

Organisms inhabiting shallow aquatic habitats currently experience increasing levels of solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB). UVB causes damage on cellular and molecular levels and can affect associated life-history traits either through direct exposure or indirectly through oxidative stress generation. We examined UVB effects on pre- and post-mating sexual traits in three-spined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Adult, reproductively non-active males were assigned to two exposure treatments under semi-natural conditions in an outdoor experiment; one group received natural radiation (UVBnormal) whilst the other group received additional UVB (UVBenhanced). After two months, colour metrics were used to quantify male breeding colouration as pre-mating trait. At the post-mating stage, sperm morphology, number and movement as well as testes mass were determined. Males did not significantly differ in sexual ornamentation between treatments, but UVBenhanced fish had smaller testes as well as fewer and shorter sperm than UVBnormal fish. Sperm movement was not significantly different between treatments. However, in UVBenhanced males, linear and progressive movement of sperm was positively correlated with sperm morphology (head-to-tail length ratio), whereas in UVBnormal males this relationship was negative (but not significant). Additionally, there was a significant treatment by body condition interaction concerning head-to-tail length ratio, i.e. head-to-tail length ratio increased with condition in UVBnormal males whereas there was no relationship in UVBenhanced fish. Our findings reveal that increased UVB levels influence post-mating fitness-relevant traits in males whilst having no significant impact on pre-mating sexual traits, suggesting selective UVB-effects at the gamete level with consequences for reproductive performance.

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Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the ‘Bakker’ research group for discussion and Jan Hottentot for catching sticklebacks in the field. We also thank Aaron Wirsing and three anonymous reviewers for their comments on earlier versions of this paper.

Author information

SV, TCMB and IPR designed the study. SV and MM-R collected the data. SV and IPR did the statistical analyses. SV wrote the manuscript supported by MM-R, TCMB and IPR.

Correspondence to Simon Vitt.

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Communicated by Aaron J Wirsing.

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Vitt, S., Mehlis-Rick, M., Bakker, T.C.M. et al. Enhanced ambient UVB radiation affects post-mating, but not pre-mating sexual traits in a fish. Oecologia 190, 355–366 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-019-04422-z

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Keywords

  • Ultraviolet light
  • Breeding colouration
  • Sperm movement
  • Sperm morphology
  • Sexual selection