Understanding negative biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationship in semi-natural wildflower strips
Studies on biodiversity–ecosystem functioning (BEF) in highly controlled experiments often yield results incompatible with observations from natural systems: experimental results often reveal positive relationships between diversity and productivity, while for natural systems, zero or even negative relationships have been reported. The discrepancy may arise due to a limited or closed local species pool in experiments, while natural systems in meta-community contexts experience dynamic processes, i.e., colonization and extinctions. In our study, we analysed plant community properties and above-ground biomass within a semi-natural (i.e., not weeded) experiment in an agricultural landscape. Eleven replicates with four different diversity levels were created from a species pool of 20 wildflower species. We found an overall significant negative relationship between total diversity and productivity. This relationship likely resulted from invasion resistance: in plots sown with low species numbers, we observed colonization by low-performing species; colonization increased species richness but did not contribute substantially to productivity. Interestingly, when analysing the biomass of the sown and the colonizer species separately, we observed in both cases positive BEF relationships, while this relationship was negative for the whole system. A structural equation modelling approach revealed that higher biomass of the sown species was linked to higher species richness, while the positive BEF relationship of the colonizers was indirect and constrained by the sown species biomass. Our results suggest that, in semi-natural conditions common in extensive agroecosystems, the negative BEF relationship results from the interplay between local dominant species and colonization from the regional species pool by subordinate species.
KeywordsBEF Colonization Invasibility Phylogenetic diversity Species richness
We thank Jan Lepš, Loïc Pellissier and Sarah M. Gray for helpful suggestions on an earlier version of the manuscript, and Sven Bacher for help with model averaging. We are grateful for the participation of Jacques Studer and of the farmers from Grandcour and all the valuable help provided by friends and family members.
Author contribution statement
NS, PK and LFB planned the experiment, NS, AA, YF and OTB conducted the experiment, NS, RPR and LFB conducted the analyses; NS, REN and LFB wrote the article.
This study was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (Grant 31003A_138489 to LFB).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Data will be available in Dryad.
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