Water availability and environmental temperature correlate with geographic variation in water balance in common lizards
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Water conservation strategies are well documented in species living in water-limited environments, but physiological adaptations to water availability in temperate climate environments are still relatively overlooked. Yet, temperate species are facing more frequent and intense droughts as a result of climate change. Here, we examined variation in field hydration state (plasma osmolality) and standardized evaporative water loss rate (SEWL) of adult male and pregnant female common lizards (Zootoca vivipara) from 13 natural populations with contrasting air temperature, air humidity, and access to water. We found different patterns of geographic variation between sexes. Overall, males were more dehydrated (i.e. higher osmolality) than pregnant females, which likely comes from differences in field behaviour and water intake since the rate of SEWL was similar between sexes. Plasma osmolality and SEWL rate were positively correlated with environmental temperature in males, while plasma osmolality in pregnant females did not correlate with environmental conditions, reproductive stage or reproductive effort. The SEWL rate was significantly lower in populations without access to free standing water, suggesting that lizards can adapt or adjust physiology to cope with habitat dryness. Environmental humidity did not explain variation in water balance. We suggest that geographic variation in water balance physiology and behaviour should be taken account to better understand species range limits and sensitivity to climate change.
KeywordsEctotherm Osmolality Pregnancy Temperature Water loss
We thank Pauline Blaimont, Pauline Dufour, Laurène Duhalde, Amélie Faure, Julia Rense, and Qiang Wu for their help with fieldwork. We also thank Clotilde Biard for lending us some of the loggers. We are grateful to the ‘Office Nationale des Forêts’, the ‘Parc National des Cévennes’, and the regions Auvergne, Rhône Alpes and Languedoc Roussillon for allowing us to sample lizards. This study was funded by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-13-JSV7-0011-01 to SM) and the National Science Foundation (NSF-EF1241848 to DBM).
Author contribution statement
AD, AR, JFLG, DBM, JC, and SM conceived the ideas and designed methodology; AD, AR, JFLG, DBM, JC, and SM captured lizards; AD and AR collected water loss data; AD, GAB, and DD collected osmolality data; AD analysed the data; AD and AR led the writing of the manuscript. All authors contributed critically to the drafts and gave final approval for publication.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing or financial interests.
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