Patterns of connectivity between breeding and wintering grounds can have important implications for individual fitness and population dynamics. Using light-level geolocators and stable hydrogen isotopes (δ2H) in feathers, we evaluated differential migration of Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) breeding on Kent Island in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada in relation to sex, age, and body size. Based on geolocators recovered from 38 individuals between 2012 and 2014, the winter distribution was centered in North Carolina (median latitude 34°, range 26°–41°), with males overwintering, on average, approximately 275 km further north than females. Based on analyses of tail feather samples collected from 106 individuals from the same population between 2008 and 2012, males and adults had more negative δ2H values than females and juveniles, respectively, providing additional evidence that males wintered north of females and that adults wintered north of juveniles. Winter latitude and δ2H values within each sex were not found to be related to body size. From geolocator data, males returned to the breeding grounds, on average, 14 days earlier than females. For males, there was some evidence that arrival date on the breeding grounds was negatively correlated with winter latitude and that individuals which arrived earlier tended to breed earlier. Thus, benefits for males of early arrival on the breeding grounds may have contributed to their wintering farther north than females. Social dominance may also have contributed to age and sex differences in winter latitude, whereby dominant males and adults forced subordinate females and juveniles further south.
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We thank Jesse Pakkala, Katherine Smith, Graham Sorenson, and Elizabeth Christiansen for assistance with fieldwork, as well as Damon and Janet Gannon, Mark Murray, and Russell Ingalls for logistical support at the Bowdoin Scientific Station on Kent Island. This represents Bowdoin Scientific Station contribution no. 255.
Author contribution statement
BKW, AEMN, SPT, BCD, NTW, and DRN conceived and designed the study. BKW, AEMN, SPT, BCD, GWM, NTW, and DRN conducted fieldwork. SPT and BCD prepared feathers for stable isotope analysis. KAH and LIW conducted stable isotope analyses. BKW conducted statistical analyses and wrote the manuscript; all authors provided editorial advice.
This study was funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (DRN), Canada Foundation for Innovation (DRN), University of Guelph (DRN, BKW), a Bowdoin Scientific Station Summer Fellowship (BCD, SPT), the Bowdoin College Roberts Fund (BCD), and a Bowdoin College Grua/O’Connell Research Award (SPT).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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