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Future increase in temperature more than decrease in litter quality can affect microbial litter decomposition in streams

Abstract

The predicted increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration for this century is expected to lead to increases in temperature and changes in litter quality that can affect small woodland streams, where water temperature is usually low and allochthonous organic matter constitutes the basis of the food web. We have assessed the individual and interactive effect of water temperature (5 and 10°C) and alder litter quality produced under ambient CO2 levels (ambient litter) or under CO2 concentrations predicted for 2050 (elevated litter) on litter decomposition and on fungal activity and assemblage structure. Litter decomposition rates and fungal respiration rates were significantly faster at 10 than at 5°C, but they were not affected by litter quality. Litter quality affected mycelial biomass accrual at 5 but not at 10°C, while increases in temperature stimulated biomass accrual on ambient but not on elevated litter. A similar pattern was observed for conidial production. All variables were stimulated on elevated litter at 10°C (future scenario) compared with ambient litter at 5°C (present scenario), but interactions between temperature and litter quality were additive. Temperature was the factor that most strongly affected the structure of aquatic hyphomycete assemblages. Our results indicate that if future increases in atmospheric CO2 lead to only slight modifications in litter quality, the litter decomposition and fungal activities and community structure will be strongly controlled by increased water temperature. This may have serious consequences for aquatic systems as faster litter decomposition may lead to food depletion for higher trophic levels.

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Acknowledgments

Alder litter was kindly provided by Prof. Douglas Godbold (School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, UK) and was a product of the Bangor FACE project. We thank Franck Gilbert for laboratory equipment, Julien Cornut and Michael Danger for the isolation of aquatic hyphomycete species, and Marion Bottollier, Sylvain Lamothe, and Didier Lambrigot for providing technical help. The comments provided by Dr. Elena Litchman and two anonymous reviewers were most welcome. Financial support granted by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Reference SFRH/BPD/34368/2006) to VF and by the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) to EC, as well as the Pessoa exchange program between Portugal and France (PHC 22808 TB) from the French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, are gratefully acknowledged.

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Correspondence to Verónica Ferreira.

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Communicated by Elena Litchman.

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Ferreira, V., Chauvet, E. Future increase in temperature more than decrease in litter quality can affect microbial litter decomposition in streams. Oecologia 167, 279–291 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-011-1976-2

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Keywords

  • Aquatic hyphomycetes
  • Atmospheric CO2
  • Ecosystem functioning
  • Global change
  • Interactive effects