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Hydraulic plasticity and limitations of alpine Rhododendron species

Abstract

In the European Alps, Rhododendron ferrugineum grows in silicate regions while Rhododendron hirsutum is restricted to limestone areas. At geologically mixed sites, also hybrids (Rhododendron × intermedium) can occur. We hypothesised that hydraulic properties would vary with the species’ habitat requirements. Key hydraulic parameters (vulnerability to drought-induced embolism, stomata regulation) and related wood characteristics as well as diurnal courses of water potential (Ψ) and stomatal conductance were analysed on plants growing on a silicate, a limestone and a geologically mixed site. Highest embolism resistance[Ψ at 50% loss of conductivity (Ψ 50), −3.24 ± 0.18 MPa] and the highest safety margin between the Ψ at stomata closure (Ψ SC at 10% of maximal leaf conductance) and Ψ 50 were observed in R. hirsutum at the limestone site (1.57 MPa). Like in R. ferrugineum, hydraulic parameters indicated less resistance at the geologically mixed site. Highest Ψ 50 (−1.95 ± 0.12 MPa), corresponding to wide conduits and a reduced conduit wall reinforcement, was found in R. × intermedium. Diurnal courses indicated a rapid stomata closure in response to low Ψ in R. hirsutum and R. × intermedium. The plasticity in drought adaptation of R. hirsutum corresponds to its ability to colonise dry limestone areas. In contrast, hydraulic limitations of R. × intermedium may explain restrictions to rather moist sites. This study provides insight into the role of xylem hydraulics and stomata regulation in shrub water relations, interspecific and site-specific differences in drought adaptation, as well as effects of hybridisation on plant hydraulics.

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Acknowledgments

This study was supported by APART (Austrian programme for advanced research and technology) and the Fonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung (FWF). We thank Mag. Ing. Birgit Dämon for excellent assistance. We also thank Prof. Heilmeier and the anonymous reviewers for thoughtful comments which helped to improve the manuscript.

Author information

Correspondence to Stefan Mayr.

Additional information

Communicated by Hermann Heilmeier.

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Mayr, S., Beikircher, B., Obkircher, M. et al. Hydraulic plasticity and limitations of alpine Rhododendron species. Oecologia 164, 321–330 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-010-1648-7

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Keywords

  • Drought resistance
  • Hydraulic safety
  • Stomatal conductance
  • Stomata regulation
  • Xylem anatomy