Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Use of forest corridors by boreal Xestia moths

Abstract

We studied movements of the noctuid moths Xestia speciosa and X. fennica in a fragmented forest landscape including old-growth spruce forest corridors in eastern Finland. We individually marked and released 1,796 adults of the habitat generalist X. speciosa and 683 individuals of X. fennica, which prefers old-growth spruce forests. Moths were recaptured with 60 sugar-bait traps that were placed within habitat corridors, in the non-habitat matrix and in surrounding old-growth forest patches. Both species favoured the corridors during their movements and tended to avoid entering the matrix. We analysed recapture rates and movements of the recaptured moths. Results suggest that X. speciosa moves longer distances than X. fennica. Though corridors clearly canalized movements by both species, the impact of old-growth forest corridors at the larger landscape scale was less clear in X. fennica. Movement behaviour of the two sexes differed more than that of the two species.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3a–d.
Fig. 4a–d.

References

  1. Ahti T, Hämet-Ahti L, Jalas J (1968) Vegetation zones and their sections in north-western Europe. Ann Bot Fenn 5:169–211

  2. Aksenov D, Karpachevskiy M, Lloyd S, Yaroshenko A (1999) The last of the last. The old-growth forests of boreal Europe. Taiga Rescue Network, Jokkmokk

  3. Andreassen HP, Halle S, Ims RA (1996) Optimal width of movement corridors for root voles: not too narrow and not too wide. J Appl Ecol 33:63–70

  4. Anonymous (1996) Statistix for Windows, version 1.0. Analytical Software, Florida

  5. Anonymous (1998) SPSS for Windows Release 8.0.1, Standard Version. SPSS, Chicago, Ill.

  6. Baudry J, Merriam HG (1988) Connectivity and connectedness: Functional versus structural patterns in landscapes. In: Schreiber K-F (ed) Connectivity in landscape ecology. Proceedings of the 2nd International Seminar of the "International Association for Landscape ecology", Münstersche Geographische Arbeiten 29, Schöningh, Münster, pp 23–28

  7. Beier P, Noss RF (1998) Do habitat corridors provide connectivity? Conserv Biol 12:1241–1252

  8. Bennett AF (1999) Linkages in the landscape: the role of corridors and connectivity in wildlife conservation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland

  9. Bierregaard RO Jr, Lovejoy TE, Kapos V, dos Santos AA, Hutchings RW (1992) The biological dynamics of tropical rainforest fragments. A prospective comparison of fragments and continuous forests. BioScience 42:859–866

  10. Didham RK, Ghazoul J, Stork NE, Davis AJ (1996) Insects in fragmented forests: a functional approach. Trends Ecol Evol 11:255–260

  11. Drent RH, Daan S (1980) The prudent parent: energetic adjustments in avian breeding. Ardea 68:225–252

  12. Esseen P-A, Ehnström B, Ericson L, Sjöberg K (1997) Boreal forests. Ecol Bull 46:16–47

  13. Forman RTT (1995) Land mosaics. The ecology of landscapes and regions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

  14. Gustafsson L, Hansson L (1997) Corridors as a conservation tool. Ecol Bull 46:182–190

  15. Haddad NM (1999a) Corridor and distance effects on interpatch movements: a landscape experiment with butterflies. Ecol Appl 9:612–622

  16. Haddad NM (1999b) Corridor use predicted from behaviors at habitat boundaries. Am Nat 153:215–227

  17. Haddad NM (2000) Corridor length and patch colonization by a butterfly, Junonia coenia. Conserv Biol 14:738–745

  18. Haddad NM, Rosenberg DK, Noon BR (2000) On experimentation and the study of corridors: response to Beier and Noss. Conserv Biol 14:1543–1545

  19. Haddad NM, Bowne DR, Cunningham A, Danielson BJ, Levey DJ, Sargent S, Spira T (2003) Corridor use by diverse taxa. Ecology 84:609–615

  20. Hardie J, Gibson G, Wyatt TD (2001) Insect behaviours associated with resource finding. In: Woiwod IP, Reynolds DR, Thomas CD (eds) Insect movement: mechanisms and consequences. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society's 20th Symposium. CABI, Wallingford, pp 87–109

  21. Harrison S, Bruna E (1999) Habitat fragmentation and large-scale conservation: what do we know for sure? Ecography 22:225–232

  22. Hess GR (1994) Conservation corridors and contagious disease: a cautionary note. Conserv Biol 8:256–262

  23. Hill CJ (1995) Linear strips of rain forest vegetation as potential dispersal corridors for rain forest insects. Conserv Biol 9:1559–1566

  24. Hobbs RJ (1992) The role of corridors in conservation: Solution or bandwagon? Trends Ecol Evol 7:389–392

  25. Jalas I (1991) Perhoskeräilijän opas, revised 3rd edn. Otava, Helsinki

  26. Jönsson KI (1997) Capital and income breeding as alternative tactics of resource use in reproduction. Oikos 78:57–66

  27. Kankare M, Várkonyi G, Saccheri I (2002) Genetic differentiation between alternate-year cohorts of Xestia tecta (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Finnish Lapland. Hereditas 136:169–176

  28. Kullberg J, Albrecht A, Kaila L, Varis V (2001) Checklist of Finnish Lepidoptera. Suomen perhosten luettelo. Sahlbergia 6:45–190

  29. Merriam G, Saunders DA (1993) Corridors in restoration of fragmented landscapes. In: Saunders DA, Hobbs RJ, Ehrlich PR (eds) Nature conservation 3: reconstruction of fragmented ecosystems. Global and regional perspectives. Surrey Beatty, Chipping Norton, pp 71–87

  30. Mikkola K (1976) Alternate-year flight of northern Xestia species (Lep., Noctuidae) and its adaptive significance. Ann Entomol Fenn 42:191–199

  31. Mikkola K, Jalas I (1977) Suomen perhoset. Yökköset 1. Otava, Helsinki

  32. Mönkkönen M, Mutanen M (2003) Occurrence of moths in boreal forest corridors. Conserv Biol 17:468–475

  33. Niemelä J (1997) Invertebrates and boreal forest management. Conserv Biol 11:601–610

  34. Nieminen M (1996) Migration of moth species in a network of small islands. Oecologia 108:643–651

  35. Noss RF (1987) Corridors in real landscapes: a reply to Simberloff and Cox. Conserv Biol 1:159–164

  36. Pimm SL, Gilpin ME (1989) Theoretical issues in conservation biology. In: Roughgarden J, May RM, Levin SA (eds) Perspectives in ecological theory. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, pp 287–305

  37. Rosenberg DK, Noon BR, Meslow EC (1997) Biological corridors: form, function, and efficacy. BioScience 47:677–687

  38. Rost M, Várkonyi G, Hanski, I (2001) Patterns of 2-year population cycles in spatially extended host-parasitoid interactions. Theor Popul Biol 59:223–233

  39. Rousset F (2001) Genetic approaches to the estimation of dispersal rates. In: Clobert J, Danchin E, Dhondt AA, Nichols JD (eds) Dispersal. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 18–28

  40. Salokannel J, Mattila K (2000) Nuoliharmoyökkösen (Xestia rhaetica) esiintymisestä Pirkanmaalla. Diamina 9:34–35

  41. Saunders DA, de Rebeira CP (1991) Values of corridors to avian populations in a fragmented landscape. In: Saunders DA, Hobbs RJ (eds) Nature conservation 2: the role of corridors. Surrey Beatty, Chipping Norton, pp 221–240

  42. Saunders DA, Hobbs RJ (1991) The role of corridors in conservation: what do we know and where do we go? In: Saunders DA, Hobbs RJ (eds) Nature conservation 2: the role of corridors. Surrey Beatty, Chipping Norton, pp 421–427

  43. Simberloff D, Cox J (1987) Consequences and costs of conservation corridors. Conserv Biol 1:63–71

  44. Simberloff D, Farr JA, Cox J, Mehlman DW (1992) Movement corridors: conservation bargains or poor investments? Conserv Biol 6:493–504

  45. Skou P (1991) Nordens ugler. Handbog over de i Danmark, Norge, Sverige, Finland og Island forekommende arter af Herminiidae og Noctuidae (Lepidoptera). Apollo Books, Stenstrup

  46. Sutcliffe OL, Thomas CD (1996) Open corridors appear to facilitate dispersal by ringlet butterflies (Aphantopus hyperantus) between woodland clearings. Conserv Biol 10:1359–1365

  47. Turner IM (1996) Species loss in fragments of tropical rain forests: a review of evidence. J Appl Ecol 33:200–209

  48. Utrio P (1995) On flight temperatures and foraging strategies of nocturnal moths (in Finnish with English abstract). Baptria 20:113–122

  49. Várkonyi G, Ahola M (2001) Notes on the larval biology of Xestia borealis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Entomol Fenn 12:78–80

  50. Várkonyi G, Hanski I, Rost M, Itämies J (2002) Host-parasitoid dynamics in periodic boreal moths. Oikos 98:421–430

  51. Wahlberg N, Klemetti T, Selonen V, Hanski I (2002) Metapopulation structure and movements in five species of checkerspot butterflies. Oecologia 130:33–43

  52. Wilcove DS, McLellan CH, Dobson AP (1986) Habitat fragmentation in the temperate zone. In: Soulé ME (ed) Conservation biology. The science of scarcity and diversity. Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass., pp 237–256

  53. Wilcox BA, Murphy DD (1985) Conservation strategy: the effects of fragmentation to extinction. Am Nat 125:879–887

  54. Wilson EO (1992) The diversity of life. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Download references

Acknowledgements

We warmly thank Martti Salo, Mauno Romppanen and Juha Seilonen for their assistance during the field work. Martti Salo also helped us in preparing the database and the figures. Reima Leinonen kindly advised us at the first steps of the study. We are indebted to Ilkka Hanski who initiated this study and commented on several versions of the manuscript. We wish to thank Otso Ovaskainen, Saskya van Nouhuys and an anonymous referee for invaluable comments on an earlier draft of the manuscript.

Author information

Correspondence to Gergely Várkonyi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Várkonyi, G., Kuussaari, M. & Lappalainen, H. Use of forest corridors by boreal Xestia moths. Oecologia 137, 466–474 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-003-1354-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Mark-release-recapture
  • Movement behaviour
  • Habitat fragmentation
  • Boreal forests
  • Lepidoptera