Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Development of auditory brainstem circuitry

Activity-dependent and activity-independent processes

  • 273 Accesses

  • 85 Citations


Despite its complexity, the neural circuitry in the auditory brainstem of vertebrates displays a fascinating amount of order. How is this order established in such a precise manner during ontogeny? In this review, we will summarize evidence for both activity-independent and activity-dependent processes involved in the generation of the auditory brainstem circuitry of birds and mammals. An example of activity-independent processes is the emergence of crude topography, which, most probably, is determined by molecular markers whose expression is genetically controlled. On the other hand, neuronal activity supports cell survival, affects dendritic and axonal growth, and influences fine tuning of maps. It appears that various types of neuronal activity, namely spontaneous versus acoustically evoked, bilateral versus unilateral, uncoordinated versus patterned, play a role during different aspects of development and cooperate with the activity-independent processes to ensure the proper formation of neuronal circuitry.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Author information

Additional information

Received: 3 February 1999 / Accepted: 6 April 1999

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Friauf, E., Lohmann, C. Development of auditory brainstem circuitry . Cell Tissue Res 297, 187–195 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1007/s004410051346

Download citation

  • Key words Molecular markers
  • Spontaneous activity
  • Sensory-evoked activity
  • Trophic effects
  • Cochlear nuclear complex
  • Superior olivary complex
  • Inferior colliculus