Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Neuropeptide Y: localization in the brain and pituitary of the developing frog (Rana esculenta)

  • 51 Accesses

  • 30 Citations


The immunohistochemical localization of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like peptide has been investigated in the peripheral terminal nerve, brain and pituitary of the frog, Rana esculenta, during development. Soon after hatching, a rather simple NPY-immunoreactive (-ir) neuronal system is present, with elements located mainly in the diencephalon. When hind limbs appear and develop, the NPY-neuronal system undergoes considerable elaboration and NPY-ir perikarya appear in several regions of the telencephalon (dorsal, medial, and lateral pallium; medial septum; medioventral telencephalon; anterior preoptic area), diencephalon (ventromedial, central and posterior thalamic nuclei; suprachiasmatic nucleus; infundibulum), mesencephalon (anteroventral mesencephalic tegmentum), and rhombencephalon (central grey; area of the cerebellar and vestibular nuclei). The frequency of NPY-ir neurons increases during larval development, and then decreases in the anterior preoptic area during the metamorphic climax. Dense plexuses of NPY-ir fibers are formed in several brain areas. NPY-ir fibers are found in the peripheral terminal nerve, and ir-neurons through its course along the ventromedial surface of the olfactory bulbs. NPY-ir fiber projections to the median eminence and pars intermedia derive mainly from the ventral infundibular group of NPY-ir neurons, with a contribution from the suprachiasmatic group of NPY neurons. NPY and carboxyl terminal flanking peptide of proneuropeptide Y coexist in the same neurons throughout the brain. The ontogenetic pattern of NPY-ir neuronal system in the brain of Rana esculenta is remarkably different than that reported for Xenopus laevis.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Author information

Additional information

Received: 29 November 1995 / Accepted: 19 March 1996

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

D’Aniello, B., Vallarino, M., Pinelli, C. et al. Neuropeptide Y: localization in the brain and pituitary of the developing frog (Rana esculenta). Cell Tissue Res 285, 253–259 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/s004410050642

Download citation

  • Key words: Neuropeptide Y
  • Brain
  • Pituitary
  • Development
  • ontogenetic
  • Frog
  • Rana esculenta (Anura)