Immune activity at the gut epithelium in the larval sea urchin
- 109 Downloads
The embryo of the purple sea urchin has been a fruitful model for the study of developmental gene regulatory networks. For similar reasons, the feeding sea urchin larva provides a gene regulatory model to investigate immune interactions at the gut epithelium. Here we describe what is known of the gut structure and immune cells of the sea urchin larva, and the cellular and gene expression response of the larva to gut-associated immune challenge. As a focused example of how the sea urchin larva can be compared with vertebrate systems, we discuss the expression and function of the IL-17 signalling system in the course of the larval immune response.
KeywordsMucosal immunity IL-17 Inflammation Vibrio Barrier immunity
JPR is supported by a grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (RGPIN-2017-06247).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
- Buckley KM, Rast JP (2017) An organismal model for gene regulatory networks in the gut-associated immune response. Front Immunol 8:1297Google Scholar
- Buckley KM, Ho ECH, Hibino T et al (2017) IL17 factors are early regulators in the gut epithelium during inflammatory response to Vibrio in the sea urchin larva. Elife 6:e23481. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23481
- Korn T, Bettelli E, Oukka M, Kuchroo VK (2009) IL-17 and Th17 cells. Annu Rev Immunol 27(285):517. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.immunol.021908.132710 Google Scholar
- Metchnikoff I (1891) Lectures on the comparative pathology of inflammation delivered at the Pasteur Institute in 1891. Dover, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Ramirez-Carrozzi V, Sambandam A, Luis E et al (2011) IL-17C regulates the innate immune function of epithelial cells in an autocrine manner. 12:1159–66. https://doi.org/10.1038/ni.2156
- Schrankel CS, Solek CM, Buckley KM et al (2016) A conserved alternative form of the purple sea urchin HEB/E2-2/E2A transcription factor mediates a switch in E-protein regulatory state in differentiating immune cells. Dev Biol 416:149–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2016.05.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Song X, Zhu S, Shi P et al (2011) IL-17RE is the functional receptor for IL-17C and mediates mucosal immunity to infection with intestinal pathogens. Nat Immunol 12. https://doi.org/10.1038/ni.2155