Distribution of Kiss2 receptor in the brain and its localization in neuroendocrine cells in the zebrafish
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Kisspeptin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide, which acts directly on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-secreting neurons via its cognate receptor (GPR54 or Kiss-R) to stimulate GnRH secretion in mammals. In non-mammalian vertebrates, there are multiple kisspeptins (Kiss1 and Kiss2) and Kiss-R types. Recent gene knockout studies have demonstrated that fish kisspeptin systems are not essential in the regulation of reproduction. Studying the detailed distribution of kisspeptin receptor in the brain and pituitary is important for understanding the multiple action sites and potential functions of the kisspeptin system. In the present study, we generated a specific antibody against zebrafish Kiss2-R (=Kiss1Ra/GPR54-1/Kiss-R2/KissR3) and examined its distribution in the brain and pituitary. Kiss2-R-immunoreactive cell bodies are widely distributed in the brain including in the dorsal telencephalon, preoptic area, hypothalamus, optic tectum, and in the hindbrain regions. Double-labeling showed that not all but a subset of preoptic GnRH3 neurons expresses Kiss2-R, while Kiss2-R is expressed in most of the olfactory GnRH3 neurons. In the posterior preoptic region, Kiss2-R immunoreactivity was seen in vasotocin cells. In the pituitary, Kiss2-R immunoreactivity was seen in corticotropes, but not in gonadotropes. The results in this study suggest that Kiss2 and Kiss2-R signaling directly serve non-reproductive functions and indirectly subserve reproductive functions in teleosts.
KeywordsKisspeptin GnRH GPR54 Reproduction Teleost
SO and ISP designed research; SO and ISP created antiserum for zebrafish Kiss2 receptor; MS and RA performed and analyzed the ISH and ICC experiments; MS performed Western blot analysis; MS and SO analyzed the data; and SO, MS, and ISP wrote the paper.
This work was supported by grants from the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education, FRGS/2/2010/ST/MUSM/03/2, FRGS/1/2014/ST03/MUSM/02/1 (to S.O.), FRGS/1/2016/STG03/MUSM/01/1 (to I.S.P) and Monash University Malaysia, SO-10-01 (to S.O.), IP-09-01 (to I.S.P).
Compliance with ethical statements
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All experimental procedures were performed under the guidelines of the Animal Ethics Committee of Monash University (approval number: MARP/2012/120).
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