Enteroendocrine cells in the Echinodermata
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Enteroendocrine cells are endocrine-like cells found in the luminal epithelia of the digestive tract. These cells have been described in most animal phyla. In echinoderms, the cells have been described mainly in organisms of the class Asteroidea (sea stars) and Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers). Here, we describe what is known about the enteroendocrine cells of the Echinodermata, including the cell types, their distribution in the digestive tract, their neuropeptide content and their regeneration and compare them to what has been found in other animal species, mainly in vertebrates. We also discuss the newly described view of enteroendocrine cells as chemical sensors of the intestinal lumen and provide some histological evidence that similar functions might be found within the echinoderms. Finally, we describe the temporal regeneration of the enteroendocrine cells in the holothurian intestine.
KeywordsEchinoderm Digestive tract Endocrine Neuropeptides Regeneration
We would like to thank Ms. Griselle Valentin for editorial help and the preparation of the figures.
This project was funded by NIH (Grant R15NS01686). We also acknowledge partial support from NIH R21AG057974 and the University of Puerto Rico.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Most data have been previously published and are available in the scientific literature. In the case of unpublished data applicable, international, national and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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