Early injection of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell after inflammation ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice through the induction of M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells
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Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are sometimes refractory to current therapy or associated with severe adverse events during immunosuppressive therapy; thus, new therapies are urgently needed. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted attention based on their multitude of functions including anti-inflammatory effects. However, proper timing of MSC therapy and the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of MSCs on colitis are not fully elucidated. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs; 1 × 106) were administrated via the tail vein on day 3 (early) or 11 (delayed) using a 7-day dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model of colitis. The effects were evaluated based on colon length, disease activity index (DAI) and histological score. Cytokine-encoding mRNA levels T cells and macrophages were evaluated by real-time PCR and flow cytometry. Regarding the timing of administration, early (day 3) injection significantly ameliorated DSS-induced colitis in terms of both DAI and histological score, compared to those parameters with delayed (day 11) injection. With early cell injection, the tissue mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine genes (Il10, Tgfb) increased, whereas those of inflammatory cytokine genes (Il6, Tnfa and Il17a) decreased significantly. Regarding the associated mechanism, hAdMSCs suppressed T cell proliferation and activation in vitro, increased the number of regulatory T cells in vivo and changed the polarity of macrophages (into the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype) in vitro. Timing of injection is critical for the effective therapeutic effects of hAdMSCs. Furthermore, part of the associated mechanism includes T cell activation and expansion and altered macrophage polarization.
KeywordsMesenchymal stem cells Regulatory T cells Macrophages Adipose tissue Dextran sulfate sodium
The authors thank Takao Tsuchida (Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Science, Niigata University) for his cooperation.
This work was supported by InterStem Co., Ltd.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
ST received research funding from InterStem Co., Ltd.
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