We previously found that transgenic mice overexpressing MMTV-FLAG-hPAD2 (PAD2OE) developed spontaneous skin lesions, with a subset of these lesions progressing to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The goal of this report was to better understand the potential mechanisms by which PAD2 overexpression promotes skin cancer. Here, PAD2OE mice were treated with the carcinogen, 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene and with O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and then scored for papilloma formation. Additionally, tumor sections were evaluated for evidence of tumor cell invasion and inflammation. We found that the total number of papillomas was significantly increased in PAD2OE mice compared to controls. Histopathologic analysis of the lesions found that in PAD2OE skin tumors progressed to invasive SCC more frequently than controls. Additionally, we found that PAD2OE lesions were highly inflamed, with a dense inflammatory cell infiltrate and an associated increase in nuclear phospho-STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) in the transgenic tumors. These data suggest that overexpression of the hPAD2 transgene in the epidermis increases the malignant conversion rate of benign tumors by promoting an inflammatory microenvironment.
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Mohanan, S., Horibata, S., Anguish, L.J. et al. PAD2 overexpression in transgenic mice augments malignancy and tumor-associated inflammation in chemically initiated skin tumors. Cell Tissue Res 370, 275–283 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-017-2669-x
- DMBA-TPA carcinogenesis model
- Peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2)
- PAD2 overexpression
- Tumor associated inflammation
- Squamous cell carcinoma