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Expression and localization of GPR91 and GPR99 in murine organs

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Energy substrates and metabolic intermediates are proven ligands of a growing number of G-protein coupled receptors. In 2004, GPR91 and GPR99 were identified as receptors for the citric acid cycle intermediates, succinate and α-ketoglutarate, respectively. GPR91 seems to act as a first responder to local stress and GPR99 participates in the regulation of the acid–base balance through an intrarenal paracrine mechanism. However, a systematic analysis of the distribution of both receptors in mouse organs is still missing. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of GPR91 and GPR99 in a large number of different murine organs both at mRNA and protein level. Whereas GPR91 mRNA was detectable in almost all organs, GPR99 mRNA was mainly expressed in neuronal tissues. Widespread expression of GPR91 was also detected at the protein level by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. In addition to neuronal cells, GPR99 protein was found in renal intercalated cells and epididymal narrow cells. Double-labeling immunohistochemistry demonstrated the colocalization of GPR99 with the B1 subunit isoform of vacuolar H+-ATPases which is expressed only by a very limited number of cell types. In summary, our detailed expression analysis of GPR91 and GPR99 in murine tissues will allow a more directed search for additional functions of both receptors.

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Correspondence to Renate Paddenberg.

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Diehl, J., Gries, B., Pfeil, U. et al. Expression and localization of GPR91 and GPR99 in murine organs. Cell Tissue Res 364, 245–262 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-015-2318-1

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  • GPR91
  • GPR99
  • Tissue distribution
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Quantitative real time RT-PCR