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Multiple roles for protein kinase C in gastropod embryogenesis

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Abstract

Protein kinase C (PKC) contributes to the correct development of organisms, but its importance to the embryogenesis of molluscs is not yet known. We report here that PKC activation is cyclic within early developing embryos of the gastropod snail Lymnaea stagnalis, and that activation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) results in disorganised and developmentally arrested embryos within 24 h. Moreover, chronic modulation of PKC activation by PMA or by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X in early embryos results in altered rotation and gliding behaviours and heartbeat during development. Finally, dis-regulation of PKC activity during early development significantly increased the duration to hatching. Our findings thus support novel roles for PKC in L. stagnalis embryos, in several physiological contexts, providing further insights into the importance of protein kinases for gastropod development in general.

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Acknowledgment

We are grateful to Richard Giddens of Kingston University for his support using the confocal laser scanning microscope.

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Correspondence to Anthony J. Walker.

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Zukaite, V., Cook, R.T. & Walker, A.J. Multiple roles for protein kinase C in gastropod embryogenesis. Cell Tissue Res 364, 117–124 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-015-2288-3

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Keywords

  • Protein kinase signalling
  • Gastropod embryogenesis
  • Embryo gliding
  • Embryo rotation
  • Embryo heartbeat