The present study has aimed to verify the influence of calcineurin and mTOR pathways in skeletal muscle longitudinal growth induced by stretching. Male Wistar rats were treated with cyclosporin-A or rapamycin for 10 days. To promote muscle stretching, casts were positioned so as completely to dorsiflex the plantar-flexor muscles at the ankle in one hind limb during the last 4 days of treatment with either cyclosporin-A or rapamycin. Thereafter, we determined soleus length, weight, protein content, and phenotype. In addition, NFATc1, Raptor, S6K1, 4E-BP1, iNOS, and nNOS gene expression in the soleus were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Soleus length, weight, and protein content were significantly reduced by rapamycin treatment in animals submitted to stretching (P<0.05). In contrast, cyclosporin-A treatment did not alter these parameters. In all cyclosporin-A treated groups, there was a significant reduction in NFATc1 expression (P<0.001). Similarly, a significant reduction was noted in Raptor (P<0.001) and S6K1 (P<0.01) expression in all rapamycin-treated groups. No alteration was observed in 4E-BP1 gene expression among rapamycin-treated groups. Stretching increased gene expression of both NOS isoforms in skeletal muscle. Rapamycin treatment did not interfere with NOS gene expression (P<0.05). Cyclosporin-A treatment did not impair muscle growth induced by stretching but instead caused a marked slow-to-fast fiber shift in the soleus; this was attenuated by stretching. The data presented herein indicate that mTOR pathway is involved in skeletal muscle longitudinal growth.
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We gratefully acknowledge the collaboration of Dr. Telma Maria Tenorio Zorn.
We gratefully acknowledge the financial support given by FAPESP.
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Aoki, M.S., Miyabara, E.H., Soares, A.G. et al. mTOR pathway inhibition attenuates skeletal muscle growth induced by stretching. Cell Tissue Res 324, 149–156 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-005-0081-4
- Real-time polymerase chain reaction
- Skeletal muscle
- Rat (Wistar, male, adult)