Analysis of European hazelnut (Corylus avellana) reveals loci for cultivar improvement and the effects of domestication and selection on nut and kernel traits
- 127 Downloads
Turkey is a rich source of European hazelnut (Corylus avellana) germplasm with nearly 400 accessions in the national collection. This genetic material encompasses cultivars, landraces and wild genotypes which were characterized for 12 nut and 13 kernel traits over 2 years in the 1990s. Analysis of these attributes revealed both the positive and negative impacts that human selection and breeding have had on hazelnut. Thus, while selection has resulted in larger nuts and kernels, cultivars have fewer nuts per cluster and kernels with larger internal cavities. Breeding has also resulted in a propensity for cultivars to have higher proportions of double kernels and empty nuts, two traits which reduce quality and yield. In addition, it is clear that while selection has successfully increased hazelnut fat content it has not impacted overall flavor, a much more complex trait. The nut and kernel phenotypic data were combined with genotypic data from 406 simple sequence repeat marker alleles for association mapping of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the traits. A total of 78 loci were detected in the population with the highest proportions for nut (24%) and kernel (26%) appearance parameters followed by quality (19%), shell thickness (16%) and yield-related (15%) traits. It is hoped that some of the identified QTL will be useful for future breeding of hazelnut for improved nut and kernel yield and quality.
KeywordsFilbert Microsatellites Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) Quantitative trait locus (QTL)
We are grateful to Teberdar Ҫalişkan and Engin Ҫetiner for phenotypic characterization of the hazelnut material.
AF analyzed results and drafted manuscript; SCӦ generated genotypic data and performed mapping; HIB, SKB and GK provided plant material and phenotypic data; SD and AF devised experiments; AF obtained funding and revised draft. All authors approved of submitted manuscript.
This study was funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK, project no: 212T201).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. The work complies with ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by the authors.
Data will be available at http://plantmolgen.iyte.edu.tr/data/ upon publication.
- Bacchetta L. Avanzato D, Botta R, Boccacci P, Drogoudi P, Metzidakis I, Rovira M, Silva AP, Solar A, Spera D, Aramini M, DiGiovanni B (2009) First results of “Safenut”: a European project for the preservation and utilization of hazelnut local genetic resources. Acta Hortic 845:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Caliskan T, Cetiner E (1992) Bazi findik cesit ve tiplerinde karakterizasyon calismalari. T.C. Tarim ve Koyisleri Bakanligi, Tarimsal Arastirmalar Genel Mudurlugu, Findik Arastirma Ensitusu Mudurlugu Yayinlar no: 25Google Scholar
- Denison S (1995) Mesolithic food industry on Colonsay. Brit Archaeol 5Google Scholar
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAOSTAT (2018) http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home. Accessed 10 May 2018
- Garcia JM, Agar IT, Streif J (1994) Lipid characteristics of kernels from different hazelnut varieties. Turk J Agric Forest 18:199–202Google Scholar
- GTHB (Gıda Tarım ve Hayvancılık Bakanlığı) (2018) Bitkisel üretim verileri. https://www.tarim.gov.tr/sgb/Belgeler/SagMenuVeriler/BUGEM.pdf. Accessed 10 May 2018
- Gurcan K, Mehlenbacher SA, Botta R, Boccacci (2010) Development, characterization, segregation and mapping of microsatellite markers for European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) from enriched genomic libraries and usefulness in genetic diversity studies. Tree Genet Genomes 6:513–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ives C, Sathuvalli VR, Colburn BC, Mehlenbacher SA (2014) Mapping the incompatibility and style color loci in two hazelnut progenies. Hortic Sci 49:250–253Google Scholar
- Kafkas S, Dogan Y, Turan A, Seker H (2009) Genetic characterization of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars from Turkey using molecular markers. Hortic Sci 44:1557–1561Google Scholar
- Norusis MJ (2010) PASW statistics 18 advanced statistical procedures. Prentice Hall Press, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
- Pala M, Ackurt F, Loker M, Yildiz M, Omeroglu S (1996) Findik cesitlerinin bilesimi ve beslenme fizyolojisi bakimindan degerlendirmesi. Turk J Agric Forest 20:43–48Google Scholar
- Pitoni A, Torelli D, Vittori D, De Pace C, Scaglione D, Fornasiero A, Cattonaro F (2013) High-density marker genotyping in hazelnut (Corylus avellana). I. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach for efficient SNP discovery and DNA typing. In: III international symposium on molecular markers in horticulture, vol 1100, pp 63–69Google Scholar
- Rowley ER, Priest HD, Shen R, Wong WK, Mockler TC, Bryant DW, Fox SE (2009) Discovery of SNP markers in expressed genes of hazelnut. In: International symposium on molecular markers in horticulture, vol 859, pp 289–294Google Scholar
- Shrestha GK, Thompson MM, Righetti TL (1987) Floiar-applied boron increases fruit set in ‘Barcelona’ hazelnut. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 112:412–416Google Scholar
- UPOV [International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants] (1979) Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L. & Corylus maxima Mill.): guidelines for the conduct of tests for distinctness, uniformity and stability. Hazelnut/Noisetier/Haselnuss, 79-03-28. Doc. No. TG/71/3. UPOV, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar