Tissue-specific transcriptomic profiling of Plantago major provides insights for the involvement of vasculature in phosphate deficiency responses
The vasculature of higher plants is important with transport of both nutrient and information molecules. To understand the correspondence of this tissue in molecular responses under phosphate (Pi) deficiency, Plantago major, a model plant for vasculature biology study, was chosen in our analysis. After RNA-Seq and de novo transcriptome assembly of 24 libraries prepared from the vasculature of P. major, 37,309 unigenes with a mean length of 1571 base pairs were obtained. Upon 24 h of Pi deficiency, 237 genes were shown to be differentially expressed in the vasculature of P. major. Among these genes, only 27 have been previously identified to be specifically expressed in the vasculature tissues in other plant species. Temporal expression of several marker genes associated with Pi deficiency showed that the time period of first 24 h is at the beginning stage of more dynamic expression patterns. In this study, we found several physiological processes, e.g., “phosphate metabolism and remobilization”, “sucrose metabolism, loading and synthesis”, “plant hormone metabolism and signal transduction”, “transcription factors”, and “metabolism of other minerals”, were mainly involved in early responses to Pi deficiency in the vasculature. A number of vasculature genes with promising roles in Pi deficiency adaptation have been identified and deserve further functional characterization. This study clearly demonstrated that plant vasculature is actively involved in Pi deficiency responses and understanding of this process may help to create plants proficient to offset Pi deficiency.
KeywordsPlantago major Vasculature RNA-Seq De novo assembly Phosphate deficiency
Expressed sequence tag
Fragments per kilobase per transcript per million mapped reads
NCBI non-redundant protein sequences
Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins
Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
A manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database
Differentially expressed gene
We appreciate the technical support from the Purdue Genomics Core Facility Center for RNA-sEq. We are grateful to Dr. Na Liu for critical comments on the manuscript.
CZ and JH conceived and designed the experiments; JH, CX, MZ, SW, CX, IM and YL prepared Plantago major plants and constructed libraries; JH and XZ conducted GUS staining experiment in Arabidopsis; JH performed quantitative real-time PCR; ZH and JH performed bioinformatic analysis; JH and CZ wrote the manuscript; CZ, XZ and IM revised and finalized the manuscript.
This study was supported by the Purdue Center for Plant Biology Seed Grant (2018).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
The transcriptomic datasets are available in NCBI with Accession Number SRR6488353 to SRR6488376. This Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession GGVT00000000. The version described in this paper is the first version, GGVT01000000.
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