Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Strongyloides ratti: additive effect of testosterone implantation and carbon injection on the susceptibility of female mice

  • 36 Accesses

  • 18 Citations


A sex-related difference in host susceptibility to Strongyloides ratti was previously known. Male mice were more susceptible to S. ratti infection and the difference was seen against migrating larvae under the regulation of testosterone. Against migrating larvae, macrophages were assumed to play important roles in host natural immunity. On the basis of these findings, to examine the effect of testosterone on macrophages we treated female mice with testosterone and/or carbon to block the function of macrophages. Mice were then infected with third-stage larvae of S. ratti. By counting of the migrating larvae in the cranial cavity at 36 h after infection the effect of each treatment was assayed. Testosterone treatment alone (Te) or carbon injection alone (Ca) effectively increased the worm recovery. Given together, Te and Ca (Te + Ca) significantly increased the worm recovery to levels almost equal to the sum of those achieved with Te and Ca. The serum testosterone concentration was elevated in mice that had undergone Te and Te + Ca at the time of worm recovery. Surprisingly, the serum testosterone concentration reached after Te + Ca was elevated more than that attained by Te. The same experiment with a half-dose of Te and Ca (Te half + Ca) resulted in the same testosterone concentration achieved with Te and resulted in a worm recovery almost equal to the sum of that achieved with Te and Ca. These results clearly showed that Te and Ca had an additive effect on the recovery of migrating S. ratti larvae. Testosterone had an effect after macrophages had been blocked. The relationship between testosterone and macrophage function during S. ratti infection is discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Author information

Additional information

Received: 18 September 1998 / Accepted: 26 January 1999

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Watanabe, K., Hamano, S., Noda, K. et al. Strongyloides ratti: additive effect of testosterone implantation and carbon injection on the susceptibility of female mice. Parasitol Res 85, 522–526 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1007/s004360050591

Download citation


  • Testosterone
  • Natural Immunity
  • Female Mouse
  • Male Mouse
  • Serum Testosterone