Lipase is associated with deltamethrin resistance in Culex pipiens pallens
The wide application of pyrethroids has led to the rapid development of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, leading to a rise in mosquito-borne diseases. We previously identified five differentially expressed lipase family genes upon evaluating the transcriptomes of deltamethrin-resistant and deltamethrin-susceptible strains of Culex pipiens pallens. Herein, the gene expression levels were verified by quantitative real-time PCR, and two lipase family genes, lipase A and pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase A, were chosen for further investigations. Using cell viability assays and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention bottle bioassays, lipase A was found to increase the resistance of mosquitoes against deltamethrin both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings indicate that lipase A is involved in conferring deltamethrin resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens.
KeywordsLipase Deltamethrin Insecticide resistance Culex pipiens pallens
HXH performed the experiments. HXH and DZ wrote the manuscript and prepared the figures. DZ, LM, and BS participated in data analyses. YS and CLZ conceived the idea and coordinated the project. All authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript for submission.
This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81772227, 81672056, and 81672058) and the National S & T Major Program (Grant No. 2017ZX10303404-002-006).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Araujo RA, Guedes RN, Oliveira MG, Ferreira GH (2008) Enhanced activity of carbohydrate- and lipid-metabolizing enzymes in insecticide-resistant populations of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. Bull Entomol Res 98(4):417–424. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485308005737 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Christeller JT, Amara S, Carriere F (2011) Galactolipase, phospholipase and triacylglycerol lipase activities in the midgut of six species of lepidopteran larvae feeding on different lipid diets. J Insect Physiol 57(9):1232–1239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2011.05.012 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liu N (2015) Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes: impact, mechanisms, and research directions. Annu Rev Entomol 60:537–559. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-010814-020828 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lv Y, Wang W, Hong S, Lei Z, Fang F, Guo Q, Hu S, Tian M, Liu B, Zhang D, Sun Y, Ma L, Shen B, Zhou D, Zhu C (2016) Comparative transcriptome analyses of deltamethrin-susceptible and -resistant Culex pipiens pallens by RNA-seq. Mol Genet Genom : MGG 291(1):309–321. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00438-015-1109-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Organization WH (2018) World malaria report:2018 https://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2018/report/en/
- Ritter M, Osei-Mensah J, Debrah LB, Kwarteng A, Mubarik Y, Debrah AY, Pfarr K, Hoerauf A, Layland LE (2019) Wuchereria bancrofti-infected individuals harbor distinct IL-10-producing regulatory B and T cell subsets which are affected by anti-filarial treatment. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(5):e0007436. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007436 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Shi L, Hu H, Ma K, Zhou D, Yu J, Zhong D, Fang F, Chang X, Hu S, Zou F, Wang W, Sun Y, Shen B, Zhang D, Ma L, Zhou G, Yan G, Zhu C (2015) Development of resistance to pyrethroid in Culex pipiens pallens population under different insecticide selection pressures. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(8):e0003928. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003928 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Yu X, Sun Q, Li B, Xie Y, Zhao X, Hong J, Sheng L, Sang X, Gui S, Wang L, Shen W, Hong F (2015) Mechanisms of larval midgut damage following exposure to phoxim and repair of phoxim-induced damage by cerium in Bombyx mori. Environ Toxicol 30(4):452–460. https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.21921 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhou D, Hao S, Sun Y, Chen L, Xiong C, Ma L, Zhang D, Hong S, Shi L, Gong M, Zhou H, Yu X, Shen B, Zhu C (2012) Cloning and characterization of prophenoloxidase A3 (proPOA3) from Culex pipiens pallens. Comparative Biochem Physiol Part B, Biochem Mol Biol 162(4):57–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2012.04.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar